FROM GLASSES TO GASES: The Science of Matter - Glossary
atomThere are 92 different kinds of atoms in nature. All substances are made of atoms or of combinations of atoms called molecules.
The amount of matter, or mass, in a unit volume. Density measures how concentrated a piece of matter is.
A cleaning substances. More detergents are continually being developed to remove grease and dirt more effectively.
A measure of the springiness of a material. A substance with high elasticity can be stretched quite far and still return to its original shape.
A substance is insoluble if it will not dissolve in a particular liquid. A substance may be soluble in one liquid but insoluble in another.
Anything that takes up space. This includes all solids, liquids, and gases.
The weakness that may develop in a piece of metal that undergoes repeated stretching or vibration. It begins when small cracks develop on the metal's surface.
The smallest part of a substance that still has the chemical properties of that substance. A molecule consists of atoms joined together.
A liquid that will only flow when pushed or squeezed.
A measure of how well a substance dissolves in a particular liquid. The solubility may be different in one liquid (e.g., water) than in another (e.g., alcohol).
A mixture of a liquid and one or more other substances. These other substances may be solids, liquids, or gases.
The liquid in which a substance is dissolved.
The condition of a piece of matter – whether it is a solid, a liquid, or a gas.
The force acting across the surface of a liquid that makes the liquid seem to have an elastic skin. It is caused by unbalanced forces between molecules at the surface.
A liquid in which tiny solid particles hand without sinking to the bottom.
A liquid that thickens if left undisturbed but flows easily again if shaken or stirred.
A liquid that is both sticky (viscous) and springy (elastic) is viscoelastic.
A measure of how well a liquid or a gas flows. A substance with a low viscosity flows more easily than one with high viscosity.
A liquid or gas is called if viscous if it has a high viscosity. For example, syrup and tar are viscous.