Bacteriology is the science that deals with bacteria, their characteristics and their activities as related to medicine, industry, and agriculture. Bacteria were discovered in 1676 by Anton von Leeuwenhoek. Modern techniques of study originate from about 1870 with the use of stains and the discovery of culture methods using plates of nutrient agar media. Much pioneering work was done by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. See also bacterial disease.