A cesarian section, also known as C-section, is the birth of a child from the uterus (womb) by abdominal operation. The mother is given an anesthetic and an incision is made in the abdomen and lower part of the uterus; the child is delivered and attended to; the placenta is removed and incisions are sewn up.
Cesarian section may be necessary if the baby is too large to pass through the pelvis, if it shows delay or signs of anoxia during labor, or in cases where maternal disease does not allow normal labor. It may be performed effectively before labor has started. With modern anesthesia and blood transfusion, the risk of cesarian section are not substantially greater than those of normal delivery. It is believed that Julius Caesar was born in this way.