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The cranium is made up of all of the bones of the skull except for the mandible (lower jaw bone). It consists of eight bones, including the brain case (calvarium) and the bones of the face, all of which, in adulthood, are fused together.

Craniotomy is surgical removal of part of the cranium, performed to expose the brain or meninges for inspection or biopsy or to relieve excessive internal pressure (as in a subdural hematoma).

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