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crucible process





A method of making high-quality steel, invented in 1740 by Benjamin Huntsman (1704–76). Steel, charcoal, and wrought iron are melted in a fire-clay crucible. Coke fires were once used but were replaced after 1870 by the Siemens gas furnace, which could heat 100 crucibles to over 1,700°C (3,100°F). Electric furnaces have now replaced this furnace.


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   • INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY