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The CHAOS/CAP Macroproject:



An "Earth-igloo" Concealment Program for Human Civilization





Richard Brook Cathcart
GEOGRAPHOS
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Introduction

still from Twilight Zone episode 'To Serve Man'
There could be as many as 30 million civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy; some of those alien civilizations may be inveterate interstellar predators.1 Charles S. Cockell and Marco Lee offered Homo sapiens the first generalized alien threat assessment.

This essay examines the tactical possibility of humanity gaining advantage over hungry space-faring alien interstellar predators via institution of a Cannot Have Anyone Over Scheme/Camouflagic Active Program (CHAOS/CAP) concealment macroproject; our civilization's inalienable survival program would have to be a twofold demulcent anti-alien deception campaign including contrived all-Earth multiple source civilization telecommunication broadcast deceptions and a geographically large-scale staged "final proof" of Earth's ineligibility as a potential alien food resource and, worse, a possible source of back-contamination if a landing is made by the supercilious aliens themselves or their macroscopic2 and microscopic3 exploratory mechanisms (avatars).4

Predicated on the governing assumption that our world populace must have certain guiding astrobiology5 information (such as intercepted non-alien distress calls provided by SETI)6 that itinerant polyphagous aliens were headed towards Earth, CHAOS/CAP's campaign goal is the timely creation of the "Earth-igloo", an actively disguised planet-size stealth Rock of Gibraltar functioning as a strategically vital base for humankind's anabasis survival strategy. (Using such a long-term anti-alien warfare strategy, humankind may never need to directly counterattack technologically superior alien foes since there can be no question of ecological coexistence.)7

The "Earth-igloo" would not be an impregnable known stronghold like the Rock of Gibraltar; instead, it would be an anti-colonialism terrestrial strictly-survivalist fortification (completed by molecular nantechnology's tiny machines) feigning the food-less deadness of present-day Mars.8 Camouflage using artificial material ("gray goo"9 on the Earth's surface, a programmatic circumambient superficial stratum that appears artless, with the aim of evading all predatory aliens may become an effective global subterfuge, just like living animals naturally use.10 If the Earth-surface is made to appear as lifeless (food-free) as the Moon or as biologically deadly as a recently emplaced nuclear waste dump11, then perhaps scornful or horrified aliens won't stop for a long period of time in this Solar System, or explore it at all. Expressing a sentence in one word, for example, "Go", as some Eskimo languages do, "Earth-igloo" seems an appropriate holophrastic expression since Earth's surface will become a nearly airless outwardly odd and repulsive place just as inhospitable as the exterior of an Eskimo's igloo.12 (Even today, there are some people who do believe/think Homo sapiens representatives never landed on the Moon, that NASA authored a successful world-public deception!)13


Earthly Geological Time's End

still from Twilight zone episode 'To Serve Man'
During 1837 the term "geological time" first appeared in the first volume of A Treatise on Geology by John Phillips (1800-74) and Thomas Dick (1774-1857), in Celestial Scenery, provided a table listing the populations of each Solar System planet then known! Subsequently, geoscience conceived Earth's surface as the "finished" product serving a durable Industrial Revolution European hegemonic civilization.14 Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) alleged in Of Men and Galaxies (1964) that were Homo sapiens to exhaust Earth's resources as well as those resources embodied within all remaining Solar System objects, intelligent human life inevitably must expect species extinction.15

Aristotle implied a rather interesting distinction of Earthly event-processes (human technology), one between cultivation (humans help global nature to produce more perfectly or abundantly things it usually produces) and construction (inducing global nature to produce things it would not otherwise be capable of producing). Aristotle mulled the possibility of tools that would perform their own work in Politics I, 4 (1253b23-1254a18). When humans mull things over we tend to ponder deeply on every little detail; the word mull is related to the Old English "myl" meaning "something reduced to small particles". Certainly, a perfected future molecular nanotechnology operating upon Earth's surface is worth mulling.16

Earth's surface is filled with interactions between minerals, bacteria and other things and many interactions occur at the nanoscale of measurement: "The near surface of the Earth is composed of what has been conservatively estimated as 1030 nm2 of inorganic and biological surfaces".17 (Nanogeoscience studies the geological event-processes involving particles no larger than 100 nanometers, meaning in some cases as small as a few atoms in width since such particles play critical roles at the Earth's surface.) Homo sapiens' first artificial, self-replicating mechanical structures were built and the first electromechanical systems were created during 1958-59, after commencement of humanity's Space Age in 1957. "Astrobiology" was apparently neologized in 1953; by 1982, SETI became professionalized via an International Astronomical Union commission's organization. "Terraforming" was coined about a decade before "Astrobiology", and molecular nanotechnology, harnessing tiny motile machines, has been proposed as an efficacious means of transforming Mars' surface in a Mars geological time period of ~25-50 years.18

General nuclear war's impact on Earth's surface has been examined rather thoroughly already.19 Thomas Lempriere (1796-1852), in 1837, fashioned a basic ocean tide gauge that was installed at Port Arthur's settlement in Tasmania, Australia; long-term tidal records accumulated from observations and measurement there unquestionably prove sea-level has risen in that Southern Hemisphere world-ocean region. If Earth's ocean ever attained its highest possible post-glacial level it would, naturally, submerge a large area of present-day land. Using the legerdemain of perfected future molecular nanotechnology it should be possible to manufacture a tenebrous ersatz Earth-surface, a veritable apparition of a dissolved human civilization which had, in fact, absconded below this new and dangerous-to-aliens sealed planetary surface! A monument is generally a fixed object, designed by its maker to remain on its site for all time. To deceive predatory aliens, Earth's creature-less and vegetation-less artificial surface must not have curiosity-arousing biogeomorphological features20 that resemble the inviting Nasca Lines or the derelict and empty pyramids of Egypt possibly attractive to extraterrestrial archaeologists; however, old nonfunctioning and crude spacecraft situated on the Moon might be left extant as an indication/proof (predial palimpsest or emblem of Homo sapiens) of the fully unfolded deception scenario detailed below.21

We often describe a fortunate event as "having turned the tide". William Shakespeare (1564-1616) captured this image in his play Julius Caesar (4:3) thus: "There is a tide in the affairs of men, which taken at the flood leads on to fortune". Humanity's future "tide" might be apparently or evidently berserk tiny robots sheathing and seething on Earth's surface; the planet's effulgence will be "catastrophically" dimmed in mere months whilst the alien enemy is still approaching the Solar System from interstellar space.22

Shakespeare also originated the suitable descriptive phrase "all the world's a stage" ("As You Like It", Act II, Scene VII) whereupon people are fooled by literary fictions of various spatial dimensions. From a human deceiver's viewpoint, the critical phases of the alien's predation-prowling/menu-formulation intelligence cycle are the collection and processing phases-no form of deceptive active camouflage is more effective than feeding the alien's long-range information-gathering sensors phony light reflections and other physical emanations.

The CHAOS/CAP concept sprang from an existing commercial antitheft dense airborne fog security system developed by Fog Security Systems (FSS) in Canada.23 FSS philosophizes that if burglars cannot see what they intend to steal, then they cannot grasp the object, or even escape quickly from the enclosure they have illegally entered by stealth; would-be burglars are reduced to apprehended prowlers facing court-ordered imprisonments. The major difference is that the CHAOS/CAP macroproject will result in an active, even roiling, oil slick-like surface covering all of Earth's land and water.24 Instead, beneath its real-time tumultuous and chaotic molecular nanotechnology-devised cap, radically transformed humans will live mostly in hibernation25, utilizing geothermal energy of ~44 TW (~0.05% of that provided by the Sun) that is unaffected by a capped ocean's underwater "weather" and leaves no excavation or spoil on the land; it would likely appear to the alien intruders as if some film horror monster, like the mineral "creatures" in The Monolith Monsters (1957), had already done their destructive superficial work, leaving nothing edible.26 In short, the CHAOS/CAP macroproject creates an unattractive Earth resulting, both apparently and evidently, from an "accident" of humanity's runaway molecular nanotechnology which produced a vitro-static planetary surface swarming with virus-like micro-machine predators!27 (Absent Alien depredation, Earth's most lasting memento of humankind's existence will be underground nuclear waste depositories and bits of high-technology ceramic-Anthropic Rock.)


Earth's Anthropo-Architecture

Geoscience has long adapted architecture's vocabulary to describe and explain various planetary features-arch, buttress, castellated, colonnade, cornice, cupola, dome28, entablature, fluting, mullion structure, palisade, pedestal, pediment, pendant, plates, floor, shelf, sill, tectonics, terrace, tessera (Venus-specific) and window. Earth's present-day geochemical surface is an open, dynamic, non-equilibrated, but ordered stationary self-organizing system with both positive and negative feedbacks.29 So far, the intelligent life form currently residing within this Earth domain has enjoyed "seclusion", one of life's30 seven supportive pillars enumerated and outlined by Daniel E. Koshland.31 But, as Charles S. Cockell and Marco Lee have announced, that may not always be a prevalent conditional planetary environment: humans have no desire to become a part of the alien's food web!32 The CHAOS/CAP passive-resistance macroproject, in part, will sculpt Earth's continental and island topography, creating a geochemical surface that has the characteristics of landfill waste after being bathed by plasma torch.33 It ought to mimic the 1969 artwork Asphalt Rundown by Robert Smithson (1938-73).34 What might be its general geophysical characteristics or properties?

G. M. Wang's "Experimental Demonstration of Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Small Systems and Short Timescales", in Physical Review Letters (Volume 98, 26 July 2002), announced a now-confirmed observation that ultra-tiny machines (Smart Dust, MEMS, Utility Fog)35 will be subject to the effect, either operating better than normal or behaving erratically.36 Basically, the manufactured Earth-surface will become a work of eutectic installation art – that is, Anthropic Rock – forming a new type of "Earth-crust" consisting of a thin, hardened or semi-hardened, foam-like concrete surface on land and a thick floating surface on the ocean.37 Upon the ocean, a covering composed of various homogeneous shapes (spheres such as bubbles or anti-bubbles)38 will float stably in all possible spatial orientations39. Some of them may even have unusual harmonic oscillator properties40; such properties may be useful to Homo sapiens' camouflaging endeavors since they may be carefully harnessed to help mask (from alien-implanted seismic detectors) all Homo sapiens-generated "cultural noise" that uncontrollably emanates from below the camouflaging anthropogenic surface!41 Sandia National Laboratories researchers have invented a macroscopic battery-free seismic sensor, which can be embedded in superincumbent Anthropic Rock formations, that powers itself by converting mechanical energy from the vibrations of its surroundings into useful electrical power.42 One might conceive of the finished CHAOS/CAP macroproject as a massively distributed (globalized) "immobot"43 (immobile robot – that is, one that cannot venture into space but is totally planet-bound, unable to escape gravity).44 This alien-repelling surface will, after its emplacement during a very, very short period of Earth's geological time, process most of the planet's air, folding those gas molecules – especially oxygen – into its own "body" composed of rampant self-assembling robots, and also saving it for humanity's current and future long-term use.

Hiding from aliens means that a professionalized elite of topflight geoscientists and installation art geniuses must anticipate every possible global nature geodynamic effect that may ever be monitored (by meat-eating aliens) to uncover the living eudemonic presence of Homo sapiens.45 Neither alien planetary aeronomy nor gravity measurement experts ought to find any indicators of humans anywhere or at anytime – zero telltales always and under every possible circumstance46.

Only experts of a near-term future time can accurately forecast just how the camouflage surface behaves. Nevertheless, it is possible to say that it will receive ~0.39 mSv from cosmic radiation and ~0.23 mSv from internal radiation; the covered world-ocean will no longer be penetrated to a depth of ~30m by UV radiation. Although no centralized catalogue exists, the number of living species named and recorded by Homo sapiens is ~1.8 millions.47

Biologists still have not settled upon a popular definition of "evolutionarily significant unit"48; biodiversity on land today is ~25 times as diverse as life in the ocean.49 Invasive species such as Homo sapiens not only reduce biodiversity but rapidly disassemble communities and, as a result, alter community organization among the persistent species. Clearly, this means humans must select representative, admired and cherished flora and fauna that can be aided to survive in widely dispersed underground chambers. Those creatures and plants not conserved, including five million trillion trillion bacteria, will certainly become sterilized by cosmic radiation impinging weakly shielded sub-aerial lands (as on Mars)50 and will, eventually, succumb to CHAOS/CAP disassembly and self-assembly event-processes. DNA samples, of course, may be scientifically preserved for future regeneration. For all intents and purposes, Earth's surface will no longer incur weathering since it will be a self-renewing "cultural stone"51 – really the result of an anti-alien Anthropic Rock manufacturing scam. Whatever it takes to survive, humankind must undertake!


Earth-Surface as Praxis

While humanity's industrial activity typically superimposes upon Earth's surface a layer of distinctly artificial composition52 and noteworthy architectural structure, a chief characteristic of anthropogeomorphic change is that it has no significant geological time record; there is no professional geoscientific agreement yet that Homo sapiens' "Anthropocene" is terminologically useful – especially as modern geoscientists are inexpert concerning the long-term durability of multitudinous man-made objects and they often seem preoccupied with purely reshaping geophysical event-processes (accelerated erosion et cetera ).

Installation art (IA)53 practitioners, however, do provide some useful approaches to the proper underpinning documentation of the CHAOS/CAP macroproject. During 10-24 February 2001 at 499-523 Oxford Street, London, UK, Michael Landy exhibited the machine-granulated remains of all of his personal possessions in a display advertised as Break Down. (Such art is in the same genre as that exhibited by Jean Tinguely and Gustav Metzger, who thought mankind ought to speak of "global nature and damaged global nature" only!)54 Installation artist Gordon Matta-Clark (1943-78)55 provided another aspect of the art of building and structure demolition perfected by the Loizeaux family, owners of Controlled Demolition, Inc. in the USA.56 In the context of CHAOS/CAP, Michael Landy's artistic exercise seems most appropriate.

Practitioners of installation art, which has strong elements of engineering and architecture57, have remarkably different perspectives about anthropogeomorphological event-processes than geoscientists. These differences are the reasons that implementation of CHAOS/CAP will be difficult: (1) IA artists wish to win approval of the world-public, while geoscientists want the unconditional respect of their peers; (2) Geological time is short for IA workers, but potentially long for professionalized investigators of a planet's global Nature; (3) The focus of IA's expression is the external logic of the macro-problem in contradistinction to geoscience's interest in the macro-problem's internal logic; (4) The mode of thought for the IA decision-maker is specific, opposed to the inductive and generic thinking of properly geoscience-trained persons; (5) Artists seek a reliable solution for their expressions but share the desire for original insight with all scientists; (6) IA's demonstrations and displays are usually abstruse and qualified while those of geoscience are, at least temporarily, simple and absolute plans; (7) Installation art mainly results in objects reflecting multiple possibilities with uncertainties emphasized whilst the "best solution" with uncertainties buried is sought by anthropogeomorphologists. To insure that humanity's futurity is one of equanimity, both valid viewpoints must be successfully blended. It may be that the schism that once separated these groups of thinkers/doers has already been healed by technology's progress – especially the ongoing development of molecular nanotechnology.


Does it seem likely that, in avoiding being devoured as alien-relished "people pabulum" Homo sapiens might somehow increase its collective intelligence?58 Yes, especially in what can be a truly "Think Tank" situation! "Intelligence" encompasses both a broad range of abilities and the efficiency with which they are enacted; flexibility and creativity are also implied by the term. In other words, melding instinct and intelligence can generate a very novel solution to the macro-problem posed by threatening alien Solar System invasion; effectively, the CHAOS-CAP macroproject is the equivalent of a major climate change.59 Beneath the meters-thick artificial Earth-crust, enveloped in an oddly novel "indoor climate"60, transformed people will live in a new and uniquely different way.

How many people can the world support? Earth's human population is now ~6000 millions, twice what it was when John Heaver Fremlin (1913-95) humorously speculated in the 29 October 1964 New Scientist on "the ultimate technical limits to [population] growth".

Today, demography's prognostications are less grim than those publicized almost forty years ago but, nevertheless, are not really rosy outlooks either. An esurient humanity, already stomping about leaving a gigantic ecological footprint on a permanently subdued global nature, may in future devise a new type of geophysical homeland wherein Hollywood's movie Singin' in the Rain (1952) will, if still shown and viewed, be an unfathomable film-recorded curiosity. Such was the gloomy, yet logical, tread and trend-projection of James G. Ballard's 1957 science fiction short-story build-up. His subsequent 1962-66 tetrology of justly famous graphic popular novels focuses on human civilization destroyed by elemental disasters-blown away in The Wind from Nowhere, permanently immersed in seawater in The Drowned World, toasted in The Burning World and, lastly, converted into a luminescent mineral in The Crystal World. Perhaps Fremlin was inspired by Ballard's surreal musings to reasonably imagine a future Earth enveloped by a massive, yet technically uncomplicated, shell-like constructed edifice.61

Viorel Badescu, working at the Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy in Bucharest, Romania, and myself have thoroughly reexamined J. H. Fremlin's futuristic demographic scenario, with the idea of updating its memorable mathematical outcomes by recalculation of his model's inherent limits to humankind's final civilization.62 (J. H. Fremlin had picturesquely described only the overall results of his monumental calculation for New Scientist readers.)

The team examined the thermodynamics of an evanescent maximum human population in "Fremlin's World", a dramatic five-stage pedagogic populace growth scenario. The maximum human population allowed by the natural Earth ranges from 300 million millions to 1700 million millions and will not exceed 1300 million millions if an ambient atmosphere temperature of 300 kelvin is assumed. A greater Earth population is obtained if the planet is intensively macro-engineered. (Interestingly, the term "macro-engineering" first appeared in the 12 March 1964 New Scientist column by "Geminus" entitled "Its seems to me", appearing at page 685 therein.) When heat pumps driven by solar energy are used to allow heat to be evacuated from the enclosed living space towards that part of the Earth surface acting as a radiator, then maximum world population ranges from 1600 to 4000 million millions for various cases detailed in our report. This is, roughly, one order of magnitude lower than the final (that is, Fifth Stage) proposed by J. H. Fremlin.

Within the framework of CHAOS/CAP, however, it is technically impossible to equal J. H. Fremlin's last iteration. Art's informed adherents nowadays contemplate biotechnology's promise.63 If aliens could interact with humans like a deadly intelligent pathogen, then our species may resist by adopting evasive military-style tactics, securing a safe hideaway below the Earth-surface's manifestly unnatural stage, enrobed in e-textile uniforms (aka, "Chameleon Spacesuits") woven and tailored by molecular nanotechnology's minuscule devices, enjoying a peaceful bionic lifetime of augmented reality64 or virtual reality existence. CHAOS/CAP ought to be classed as an "intelligent building", an ecosystem that is its own computer65; the innumerable life-sustaining "body-bags" enclosing non-identical human individuals ought to be named "tethered jellyfish". The volume of the Earth-ocean occupied by the tethered jellyfish containers will vary according to the total population at any particular moment in geological time. Essentially, this domicile combines a perfected cybernetics, proposed in 1943 by Norbert Wiener (1894-64), with the surgically and gene-based manipulations of the human body proposed in 1965 by Oswald Wiener, who estimates that future humans may eventually consist of only the human-head. Since 1970, biologists have contemplated future surgeries involving total human head and brain transplantation.66 (Air is human life's fundamental resource, and that can be economically extracted from ocean water by, for example, utilizing US Patent 6346141, awarded 12 February 2002 to Marshall L. Nuckols and his business associates.67)

Masquerading as extinct via a "Wiener's World" strategic ploy, Earth's "human-head" population could be ~1.8 trillions (relying only on energy radiated from the Earth-core); such unusual circumstances result in a nearly liquefied Earth-noosphere encased by topographically uninteresting manufactured materials. This unique watery Earth-rind/cyberspace geophysical combination is named for Oswald Wiener, inventor of the "bio-adapter".68 (His "bio-adapter" can be much smaller than AQUARIUS, the only submarine habitat still operating.)69

Anyone entering Oswald Wiener's "bio-adapter" becomes part of a total cultural environment in which every possible gratification, both mental and physical, is producible by his snugly electromechanical device. Akin to a flexible cyber-garment currently being sought by the US Army's Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT, Oswald Wiener's "bio-adapter" gradually, painlessly, absorbs the individual containerized, sundering each person from geophysical reality, yet still conscious of gravity. Since the human person is reduced, partially disembodied in fact, to just a brain, that person will require only ~20% of the energy an intact nude human needs to function normally; the brain is ~2% of a normal human's bulk.70 (Whilst the US Army's cyber-uniform will shield warriors against chemical and biological attacks, human neurotransmitters will be unaffected.) In other words, there will be a one-time-only opportunity – instigated by the predicted arrival of interstellar predators or some other Solar System-wide astronomical event-process – during Earth's future geological time to save planetary space or increase the absolute number of persons dwelling within Earth. Its inventor visualized subterranean head-holding "bio-adapters" lodged beneath Earth's then almost utopic Green-recommended human-less land surface.

Incompletely absorbed humans will be protected like autochthonous bacterial spores possibly resident inside interplanetary and interstellar space-roaming boulders; Oswald Wiener's nearly fluidized "humans" will be mostly liquid, capable of withstanding uniformly high pressures like hardy ancient living bacteria deeply ensconced in the present-day world-ocean. For safety reasons, such as the future expected environmental impacts owing to cosmic ray jets produced from nearby supernova explosions, the total mass of Oswald Wiener's "bio-adapter" head-protecting units must be anchored hundreds of meters below the world-ocean's oil slick-like hardened surface, gently bobbing as if in Mother Earth's womb. Such functional location, mirroring the hardy species' previous use of the atmosphere, means simply that long-term underwater weather (hydro-climate) will be an extremely important factor for a single-society human civilization consisting of a Disneyfied cyberspace and molecular nanotechnology hybrid securely hitched to each other with carbon nanotubes and connected by colorized communicational conduits of fiber-optic strands.71 It might remarkably resemble the long-purported "primordial soup"72, or a slightly denser, more ooze-like version of J. Storrs Hall's theorized "Utility Fog" – a "tapioca pudding". Seawater surrounding each minimal-size "bio-adapter" will become a geographical layer (three-dimensional region) in controlled flux under the influence of a comprehensive macro-engineering; of course, it is expected that a large change of Earth's gravitational field will ensue because of this anthropogenic mass distribution.

Molecular nanotechnology makes it possible to envision a pleasing prospect of a future situation whereby the necessary resources required by humans to exist for an "unending" geological time period will "always" be available with virtually no effort by humans!73 It is possible this aquatic settlement will have a virtual political capital74, or maybe not.75


Alien-Misleading Broadcasts

Since Homo sapiens commenced outdoor light pollution before the species established radio, television and radar transmissions, it is likely that interstellar predators will be attracted by the Earth-surface's light emissions.76 After all, Earth's astronomers expect to discover life's presence on far-distant planets via detection of smoggy foreign atmospheres (oxygen and other gases) or strangely-emitted light-pollution!77 Man-made radio transmissions are clearly recorded by humankind's own satellites78 and most astrobiology specialists assert vigorously "Television leakage from the Earth allows detection of our civilization at interstellar distances".79

Many languages – the "linguasphere" – projected as radio transmissions have come to encompass the Earth and also to leave the planet in a generally spherical movement.80 This means that a global human civilization must, as soon as possible after finally assessing that predatory aliens are headed towards Earth, coordinate their spurious transmissions in order to convey to far-distant listeners (and television viewers), that humanity has made a colossal molecular nanotechnology mistake, unleashing voracious tiny machines that are eating our world-society's citizens and reducing humankind's most magnificent erected constructions to a darkish digested dust!81 Such a radio and television script will require the best efforts of mankind's greatest minds – Hollywood's hacks need never be seriously considered! The sneakier these choreographed imaginings are the better. The death-cries of Homo sapiens' civilization's collapse and its-literally-dissolving into a lethal sublunary moonscape must horrify the aliens, provoking them to alter their spacecraft trajectories, passing swiftly through our Solar System to avoid the Earth-igloo.


Relief is Just a Planet (or two) Away

After the aliens pass, humanity's avatars can then emerge from below humanity's protective carapace to regenerate consanguineous whole human bodies and to terraform Mars and Venus for our future sustainable inhabitation. It might be wise to not restore Earth's natural ecosystems for some protracted period of time since the farther away the aliens are, the better for our species. Meanwhile, why not reinforce their induced misperception by altering the Moon's albedo drastically? That might convince the Aliens that a wild, even threatening, "electromechanical race" of invisible self-replicating robots has become space faring and capable of Alien pursuit!


References

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23. GOTO: http://www.fogsecurity.com.
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26. GOTO: http://www.strangehorizon.com/2001/20010326/forgotten_classics.shtml.
27. [For example, See: Michel Crichton's science fiction novel Prey (2002).]
28. GOTO: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/04/0403_020403_Tvdirtdomes.html.
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