# escape velocity

The escape velocity is the minimum velocity that a less massive object, such as a rocket, runaway star, or rogue
planet, must have in order to escape completely from the gravitational
influence of another, more massive body, such as a planet or a star, without
being given any extra impetus. It can be calculated by taking the square
root of (2*Gm*/*r*) where *r* is the distance from the center
of the gravitating body of mass *m*, and *G* is the gravitational
constant. This is equal, but in the opposite direction to the velocity it
would have acquired if it had been accelerated from rest, starting an infinite
distance away. The escape velocity can also be thought of as the velocity
an object needs in order to attain a parabolic
orbit – the lowest-energy open orbit. For an object leaving Earth's
surface this is 11.2 km/s about 7 miles/s). An **escape orbit** is any orbit whose apoapsis lies at infinity.
This includes parabolic orbits and hyperbolic
orbits. If the body's velocity is less than the escape velocity, it
is said to be gravitationally bound.

planet | escape velocity (km/s) |

Mercury | 3.20 |

Venus | 10.08 |

Earth | 11.12 |

Mars | 4.96 |

Jupiter | 59.20 |

Saturn | 35.20 |

Uranus | 20.80 |

Neptune | 24.00 |

Pluto | 1.1 |