Galileo Europa Mission (GEM)

The Galileo spacecraft was originally scheduled to end its investigations of Jupiter and its environs on December 7, 1997. However, following funding approval by NASA and the US Congress, the mission was extended for a further two years through the end of 1999. The first part of the extended mission, lasting more than a year, was devoted to searching for further evidence of a sub-surface watery ocean on Europa. During eight orbits of Jupiter, Galileo made close approaches to Europa of between 200 and 3,600 kilometers, enabling a camera resolution of down to 6 meters. Following the Europa Campaign ("Ice") was scheduled the Perijove Reduction/Jupiter Water Study ("Water") and the Io Campaign ("Fire").