Giaever, Ivar (1929–)
Norwegian-born US physicist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics with
Brian Josephson and Leo Esaki
for their research into tunneling effects in semiconductors
and superconductors. Esaki and tunnel diode,
which enables electrons to cross normally impassable electronic barriers,
and Giaever applied this to superconductors, demonstrating new effects which
led to a better understanding of superconductivity.