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Graphene is a form of carbon, first isolated in 2004, consisting of one-atom-thick sheets of carbon atoms in a hexagonal, "chicken-wire" arrangement. The molecular structure is like that of graphite without the three-dimensional stacking of layers – hence the similarity in name.

Graphene has an extremely high electrical conductivity, allowing electrons to fly though it almost like photons (particles of light) through a vacuum. Among other uses, graphene may form the basis of a new generation of smaller, faster, cheaper, and more durable computer chips.

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