Holland, John Philip (1840–1914)
Irish-born US engineer who invented the first modern, gasoline-driven submarine.
He offered a design to the US Navy department in 1875, but it was rejected
as impracticable. After further development, the successful Fenian Ram
was launched in 1881. This was not practical for extended operations, but
its design was the basis for the Holland, which had an internal
combustion engine for surface cruising and an electric motor for submerged
operations. The US government bought the Holland in 1900.