- The rate of heat production by a steady current in any part of an
electrical circuit is proportional to the resistance and to the square
of the current. In other words, the heat (Q) produced when
an electric current (I)
flows through a resistance (R) for a time (t) is given
by Q = I 2Rt.
- The internal energy of a given
mass of gas is independent of its volume and pressure, being a function
of temperature alone. This law applies only to ideal
gases (for which it provides a definition of thermodynamic temperature)
because in a real gas intermolecular forces would cause changes in the
internal energy should a change of volume occur.