Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike (1853–1926)
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch physicist who was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on low-temperature physics. He discovered superconductivity and was the first to liquefy helium (1908). In the late 1880s, he began studying gases at low temperatures and in 1908, using a liquid-hydrogen cooling system, he liquefied helium and found its temperature to be 4°C (7°F) above absolute zero. He discovered that at this temperature some metals, such as lead and mercury, lose all electrical resistance and become superconductors.