A

David

Darling

Mars, unmanned spacecraft

spacecraft country launch date notes
Marsnik 1 USSR Oct. 10, 1960 Attempted flyby; launch failure
Marsnik 2 USSR Oct. 14, 1960 Attempted flyby; launch failure
Sputnik 22 USSR Oct. 24, 1962 Attempted flyby
Mars 1 USSR Nov. 1, 1962 Flyby; contact lost
Sputnik 24 USSR Nov. 4, 1962 Attempted lander
Mariner 3 USA Nov. 5, 1964 Attempted flyby
Mariner 4 USA Nov. 28, 1964 Flyby
Zond 2 USSR Nov. 30, 1964 Flyby; contact lost
Mariner 6 USA Feb. 24, 1969 Flyby
Mariner 7 USA Mar. 27, 1969 Flyby
Mars 1969A USSR Mar. 27, 1969 Attempted orbiter; launch failure
Mars 1969B USSR Apr. 2, 1969 Attempted orbiter; launch failure
Mariner 8 USA May. 8, 1971 Attempted flyby; launch failure
Cosmos 419 USSR May 10, 1971 Attempted orbiter/lander
Mars 2 USSR May 19, 1971 Orbiter/attempted lander
Mars 3 USSR May 28, 1971 Orbiter/lander
Mariner 9 USA May 30, 1971 Orbiter
Mars 4 USSR Jul. 21, 1973 Flyby/attempted orbiter
Mars 5 USSR Jul. 25, 1973 Orbiter
Mars 6 USSR Aug. 5, 1973 Lander; contact lost
Mars 7 USSR Aug. 9, 1973 Flyby/attempted lander
Viking 1 USA Aug. 20, 1973 Orbiter and lander
Viking 2 USA Sep. 9, 1975 Orbiter and lander
Fobos 1 USSR Jul. 7, 1988 Attempted orbit and Phobos landers
Fobos 2 USSR Jul. 12, 1988 Orbiter/attempted Phobos landers
Mars Observer USA Sep. 25, 1992 Attempted orbiter; contact lost
Mars Global Surveyor USA Nov. 7, 1996 Orbiter
Mars 96 Russia Nov. 16, 1996 Attempted orbiter and landers
Mars Pathfinder USA Dec. 4, 1996 Lander and rover
Nozomi Japan Jul. 3, 1998 Attempted orbiter
Mars Climate Observer USA Dec. 11, 1998 Attempted orbiter
Mars Polar Lander USA Jan. 3, 1999 Attempted lander and penetrators
Mars Odyssey USA Apr. 7, 2001 Orbiter
Mars Express and Beagle 2 Europe/UK Jun. 2, 2003 Orbiter and attempted lander
Mars Exploration Rover,
Spirit
USA Jun. 10, 2003 Lander and rover
Mars Exploration Rover,
Opportunity
USA Jul. 7, 2003 Lander and rover
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter USA Aug. 12, 2005 Orbiter
Mars Phoenix Lander USA Aug. 4, 2007 Lander
Mars Science Laboratory
Curiosity rover
USA 2012 Lander and rover
InSight USA 2016 Lander
ExoMars Europe 2016 / 2018 Orbiter, lander and 2 rovers