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SETI: A Critical History

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SETI: A Critical History is a copy of the following PhD thesis, reproduced here with permission:

SETI's Scope
How the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Became Disconnected from New Ideas About Extraterrestrials

by Mark A. Sheridan (email)
Drew University
May 2009

© 2009 by Mark A. Sheridan
All rights reserved
Contents
Cover
Dedication
Opening quote
Some important events in the history of SETI

1. Introduction

Part I. Constructing SETI

2. SETI science
Greenbank
Intelligent life in the Universe
Uniformitarianism
The principle of mediocrity
SETI constructed within the boundaries of the traditional ETI discourse
3. SETI as popular science
ETI portraiture as a rhetorical site
SETI-ETI
Popular expositions of ETI science
SETI and the scientific community

Part II. Expanding the ETI discourse

4. The rehabilitation of "mind"

5. The Soviet critique of SETI
Differences in attitudes toward ETIs
Differences in temperament
Differences in intellectual traditions
Byurakan-II
6. The evolutionists' critique of SETI
Dueling improbabilities
"New" evolutionists
Eiseley: the possibility of non-humanoid ETIs
Simpson: making SETI's assumptions overt
Talking the talk
Byurakan-II: deepening the evolutionists' critique and expanding SETI's response
Dobzhansky: deterministic thinking
7. The philosophers' critique of SETI

8. Plausible non-humanoid ETIs
ETIs with non-humanoid sensorial
Superorganisms
Neutron star beings
Superconductor ETIs

Part III. Implications of the expanded ETI discourse for SETI

9. Reactions to the "nature"-based critiques
Project Cyclops
The Morrison workshops
Congress
Name change
10. Inflection
SETI's standing in the scientific community
Pascal's wager
Signs of wearying
Commission 51
The inflection point in popular culture
Giving up the ghost
11. Evanescence
1993: annus horribilis
Today
SETI in the popular culture
12. Conclusion


Bibliographical essay

>> Bibliography
SETI: Primary and secondary sources
ETI discourse: Secondary sources
ETI discourse: Primary sources
Texts that directly discuss ETIs
Popular expositions of ETI science
Hard science fiction featuring ETIs
ETI portraiture in American film and television
SETI – Primary and Secondary Sources

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Billingham, John et al, eds., Social Implications of the Detection of an Extraterrestrial Civilization – A Report of the Workshops on the Cultural Aspects of SETI Held in Three Sessions: October, 1991, May, 1992, and September, 1992 at Santa Cruz, California (Mountain View, CA: SETI Press, 1994).

Billingham, John, ed., Life in the Universe – Proceedings of a conference held at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, Jun 19–20, 1979 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1981).

Billingham, John, ed., Project Cyclops – A Design Study of a System for Detecting Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life (Moffett Field, CA: NASA/Ames Research Center, 1973).

Cameron, A. G. W., ed., Interstellar Communication – A Collection of Reprints and Original Contributions (New York: W. A. Benjamin, 1963).

Campbell, Bernard, "Evolution of Technological Species," in Billingham, John, ed., Life in the Universe – Proceedings of a conference held at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, Jun 19–20, 1979 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1981), 277–85.

Cocconi, Giuseppe, and Philip Morrison, "Searching For Interstellar Communications," Nature 184 (September, 1959): 844–6.

Davidson, Keay, Carl Sagan – A Life (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999).

Dick, Steven J., "The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence and the NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS): Historical Perspectives," Space Science Reviews, 64 (1993): 93–139.

Dick, Steven J., The Biological Universe – The Twentieth-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Dobzhansky, Theodosius, "Darwinian Evolution and the Problem of Extraterrestrial Life," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 15 (Winter 1972): 157–75.

Drake, Frank, Intelligent Life in Space (New York: Macmillan, 1962).

Drake, Frank, "On Hands and Knees in Search of Elysium," Technology Review (June, 1976): 22–9.

Drake, Frank, “Will the Real SETI Please Stand Up?" Physics Today (June, 1982): 71–3.

Drake, Frank, and Dava Sobel, Is Anyone Out There – The Scientific Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (New York: Delta, 1992).

Dyson, Freeman J., "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Radiation," Science 131 (June 3, 1960): 1667–8.

Eiseley, Loren, "Little Men and Flying Saucers," Harper's Magazine (March 1953): 86–9.

Grinspoon, David, "SETI and the Science Wars," Astronomy 28 (May, 2000), 52–6.

Hart, Michael H., "An Explanation for the Absence of Extraterrestrials on Earth," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 16 (1975): 128–35.

Kaplan, S. A. ed., Extraterrestrial Civilizations – Problems of Interstellar Communication [1969], IPST staff trans. (Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

Kardashev, N. S., "Transmission of Information by Extraterrestrial Civilizations," in G. M. Tovmasyan, ed., Extraterrestrial Civilizations (Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1967): 19–29.

Kardashev, Nikolai S., "On the Inevitability and the Possible Structures of Supercivilizations," in Michael D. Papagiannis, ed., IAU Symposium 112 – The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments, Boston, June 18–21, 1984 (International Astronomical Union Commission 51 – Search For Extraterrestrial Life), 497–504.

Library of Congress, Science Policy Research Division, Possibility of Intelligent Life Elsewhere in the Universe, rev. ed. 1977 (Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, 2001).

Lovejoy, C. Owen, "Evolution of Man and Its Implications for General Principles of the Evolution of Intelligent Life," in John Billingham, ed., Life in the Universe – Proceedings of a conference held at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, Jun 19–20, 1979 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1981), 317–29.

Marx, G., ed., Bioastronomy – the Next Steps, Proceedings of the 99th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union Held in Balaton, Hungary, June 22–27, 1987 (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988).

Michael, Donald N., Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1960).

Michaud, Michael, "A Unique Moment in Human History," in Ben Bova, and Byron Preiss, eds., First Contact – The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (New York: NAL/Penguin, 1990), 243–61.

Morrison, Philip, "Entropy, Life, and Communication," in Cyril Ponnamperuma, and A. G. W. Cameron, eds., Interstellar Communication – Scientific Perspectives (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974), 168–87.

Morrison, Philip, "Interstellar Communication," in A. G. W. Cameron, ed., Interstellar Communication – A Collection of Reprints and Original Contributions (New York: W. A. Benjamin, 1963), 249–71.

Morrison, Philip, "Life Beyond Earth," in Richard Berendzen, ed., Life Beyond Earth and the Mind of Man (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1973).

Morrison, Philip, John Billingham, and John Wolfe, eds., The Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence – SETI, NASA SP–419 (NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1977).

Morrison, Philip, "Twenty-Five Years of the Search for Extraterrestrial Communication," in Michael D. Papagiannis, ed., IAU Symposium 112 – The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments, Boston, June 18–21, 1984 (International Astronomical Union Commission 51 – Search For Extraterrestrial Life), 19–23.

National Academy of Sciences, "Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s, Volume 1: Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee," http:www.nap.edu/catalog/549.html, accessed January, 2008.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Workshop on the Societal Implications of Astrobiology – Final Report, Ames Research Center, November 16–17, 1999, (http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/workshops/societal/societal_report.pdf, accessed June, 2006).

Oliver, Bernard M., "Why Search?" quoted in Machol, Robert E., "An Ear to the Universe," in Donald Goldsmith, The Quest for Extraterrestrial Life – A Book of Readings (Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books, 1980), 156.

Panovkin, B. N., "The Objectivity of Knowledge and the Problem of the Exchange of Coherent Information with Extraterrestrial Civilizations," Tatiana Mikhailova, trans., Philosophical Problems of 20th Century Astronomy (Moscow, 1976), 240–65.

Papagiannis, Michael D., ed., IAU Symposium 112 – The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments, Boston, June 18–21, 1984 (International Astronomical Union Commission 51 – Search For Extraterrestrial Life).

Pearman, J. P. T, "Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life and Interstellar Communication: An Informal Discussion," in A. G. W. Cameron, ed., Interstellar Communication (New York: W. A. Benjamin, 1963), 287–93.

Ponnamperuma, Cyril, and A. G. W. Cameron, eds., Interstellar Communication – Scientific Perspectives (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974).

Poundstone, William, Carl Sagan – A Life in the Cosmos (New York: Henry Holt and Co, 1999.

Sagan, Carl, ed., Communication With Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI), (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973).

Sagan, Carl, Cosmic Connection (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973; reprinted as Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection – An Extraterrestrial Perspective (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Sagan, Carl, "A Discussion of the Recognition of Alien Life," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 189 (6 May 1975): 143–52.

Sagan, Carl, The Dragons of Eden – Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence (New York: Ballantine, 1977).

Sagan, Carl, Cosmos – Chapter XII, "Encyclopedia Galactica" (Public Broadcasting System, 1980).

Sagan, Carl, "Letter," Science 218 (October, 1982):426.

Sagan, Carl, "The Solipsist Approach to Extraterrestrial Intelligence," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 24 (1983), 113–21.

SETI Institute, "Archive of SETI Observing Programs," http://www.seti.org/Page.aspx?pid=689, accessed December, 2008.

Shapiro, Robert, Origins: A Skeptic's Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth (New York: Summit Books, 1986.

Shklovskii, Iosef S., "Is Communication Possible with Intelligent Beings on Other Planets," in A. G. W. Cameron, ed., Interstellar Communication – A Collection of Reprints and Original Contributions (New York: W. A. Benjamin, 1963), 11–9.

Shklovskii, I. S., "On the Possibility of the Uniqueness of Intelligent Life in the Universe," Tatiana Mikhailova, trans. Questions of Philosophy 9 (1976): 80–93.

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Shklovskii, Iosef, Five Billion Vodka Bottles to the Moon – Tales of a Soviet Scientist, Mary Fleming Zirin and Harold Zirin, trans. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991).

Shostak, G. Seth, ed., Third Decennial US – USSR Conference on SETI, Santa Cruz, California, August 5–9, 1991 (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 1993.)

Shostak, Seth, ed., Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life – 1993 Bioastronomy Symposium, Santa Cruz, CA, 16–20 August 1993 (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1995).

Simpson, George Gaylord, "The Nonprevalence of Humanoids," in Donald Goldsmith, ed., The Quest for Extraterrestrial Life – A Book of Readings (Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books, 1980), 214–21.

Swift, David W., SETI Pioneers – Scientists Talk About Their Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1990).

Tovmasyan, G. M., ed., Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Z. Lerman, trans. (Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1967).

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Von Hoerner, Sebastian, "The Search for Signals from Other Civilizations," in A. G. W. Cameron, ed., Interstellar Communication – A Collection of Reprints and Original Contributions (New York: W. A. Benjamin, 1963), 272–6.

Zuckerman, Ben, and Michael H. Hart, eds., Extraterrestrials – Where Are They?, 2d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).


The ETI Discourse – Secondary Sources

Bassalla, George, Civilized Life in the Universe – Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Crowe, Michael J., The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986; republished, Toronto, ONT: Dover, 1999).

Crowe, Michael J., "A History of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate," Zygon 32 (June, 1997): 147–62.

Dick, Steven J., Plurality of Worlds – The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

Dick, Steven J., Life on Other Worlds – The 20th Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Guthke, Karl S., The Last Frontier – Imaging Other Worlds from the Copernican Revolution to Modern Science Fiction, Helen Atkins, trans. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990).

Hennessey, R. A. S., Worlds Without End (Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing, 1999).

Lovejoy, Arthur O., The Great Chain of Being (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1936).


The ETI Discourse – Primary Sources


I. Texts That Directly Discuss ETIs


Allen, Tom, The Quest – A Report on Extraterrestrial Life (New York: Chilton, 1965).

Arbib, Michael A., "Minds and Millennia: The Psychology of Interstellar Communication – A Lecture Given at San Jose State University and San Francisco City College in May, 1976," Cosmic Search 1 (Summer, 1979): 21–8.

Arbib, Michael, "The Likelihood of the Evolution of Communicating Intelligence on Other Planets," in Cyril Ponnamperuma, and A. G. W. Cameron, eds., Interstellar Communication – Scientific Perspectives (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974), 59– 78.

Archer, Michael, "Slime Monsters Will Be Human Too," Australian Natural History 22 (Autumn, 1989), 546–7.

Baird, John C., The Inner Limits of Outer Space (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1987).

Baldwin, George C., "Keeping the ETs Away," Sky & Telescope 93 (February, 1997): 6–7.

Barker, Peter, "Omnilinguals," in Nicholas D. Smith, ed. Philosophers Look at Science Fiction (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1982).

Beck, Lewis White, "Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life – Presidential Address Delivered Before the Sixty-eigth Annual Eastern Meeting of the American Philosophical Association in New York City, December 28, 1971," in Predrag Cicovacki, ed., Essays By Lewis White Beck: Five Decades as a Philosopher (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1988).

Bieri, Robert, "Humanoids on Other Planets," American Scientist 52 (1964): 452–8.

Bodifee, G., and C. de Loore, "On the Occurrence and Appearance of Galactic Life Forms: A Thermodynamic Approach," in Papagiannis, Michael D., ed., IAU Symposium 112 – The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments, Boston, June 18–21, 1984 (International Astronomical Union Commission 51 – Search For Extraterrestrial Life), 255–9.

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Casti, John L., Paradigms Lost – Tackling the Unanswered Mysteries of Modern Science (New York: Avon Books, 1989).

Chomsky, Noam, "Things No Amount of Learning Can Teach," John Gliedman, interviewer, Omni 6 (November, 1983).

Churchland, Paul M., Matter and Consciousness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001).

Cohen, Jack, and Ian Stewart, Evolving the Alien (London: Ebury Press, 2002).

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Ehrensvard, Gosta, Man on Another World, Lennart and Kajsa Roden, trans. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961).

Finney, B. et al, "Tsiolkovsky and Extraterrestrial Intelligence," Acta Astronautica 46 (2000): 745–9.

Finney, Ben, and Jerry Bentley, "A Tale of Two Analogues: Learning at a Distance from the Ancient Greeks and Maya and the Problem of Deciphering Extraterrestrial Radio Transmissions," Acta Astronautica 42, (1998): 691–6.

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Hoffmeyer, Jesper, Signs of Meaning in the Universe, Barbara J. Haveland, trans. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1993).

Holroyd, Stuart, Alien Intelligence (New York: Everest House, 1979).

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Jeans, James, Sir, "Is There Life on the Other Worlds? Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, November 20, 1941," reprinted in The Smithsonian Institution Annual Report (1942), 145–150.

Jonas, Doris, and David Jonas, Other Senses, Other Worlds (Briarcliff Manor, NY: Stein and Day, 1978).

Kafatos, M., "The Universal Diagrams and Life in the Universe," in Michael D. Papagiannis, ed., IAU Symposium 112 – The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments, Boston, June 18–21, 1984 (International Astronomical Union Commission 51 – Search For Extraterrestrial Life), 245–9.

Kaku, Michio, Parallel Worlds (New York: Doubleday, 2005).

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Mayr, Ernst, "The Probability of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life," in Edward Regis, Jr., Extraterrestrials – Science and Alien Intelligence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 23–30.

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Webb, Stephen, If the Universe is Teeming With Aliens ... Where Is Everybody? Fifty Solutions to the Fermi Paradox and the Problem of Extraterrestrial Life (New York: Copernicus Books, 2002).

Werth, Lee F., "The Anthropomorphic Predicament and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (The Universe as Seen Through Our Eyes Darkly)," Journal of Applied Philosophy 15, (1998), 83–8.

Weston, Anthony, "Radio Astronomy as Epistemology: Some Philosophical Reflections on the Contemporary Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence," Monist 71 (1988): 89-100.

White, Frank, The SETI Factor – How the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is Changing our View of the Universe and Ourselves (New York: Walker and Company,1990).


II. Popular Expositions of ETI Science


Aczel, Amir D., Probability 1 – Why There Must Be Intelligent Life in the Universe (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1998).

Anderson, Poul, Is There Life on Other Worlds? (New York: The Crowell-Collier Press, 1963).

Angelo, Joseph A., The Extraterrestrial Encyclopedia – Our Search for Life in Outer Space, 2d ed. (New York: Facts on File, 1991).

Asimov, Isaac, Extraterrestrial Civilizations (Fawcett Columbine, 1979).

Baugher, Joseph F., On Civilized Stars – The Search for Intelligent Life in Outer Space (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985).

Bennett, Jeffrey, Seth Shostak, and Bruce Jakosky, Life in the Universe (San Francisco: Addison Wesley, 2003).

Berrill, N. J., Worlds Without End (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964).

Bracewell, Ronald, The Galactic Club, 1974 (San Francisco: San Francisco Book Co., 1976).

Breuer, Reinhard, Contact with the Stars – The Search for Exterrestrial Life, Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin, and Mark Lowery, trans. (Oxford: W. H. Freeman, 1982).

Bylinsky, Gene, Life in Darwin's Universe (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1981).

Cade, C. Maxwell, Other Worlds Than Ours (New York: Taplinger Publishing, 1966).

Challoner, Jack, The Science of Aliens (New York: Prestel, 2005).

Clark, Stuart, Life on Other Worlds and How to Find It (Chichester, UK: Springer – Praxis Publishing, 2000).

Darling, David, Life Everywhere – The Maverick Science of Astrobiology (New York: Basic Books, 2001).

Davies, Paul, The 5th Miracle – The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life (New York: Touchstone Books, 1999).

Davoust, Emmanuel, The Cosmic Water Hole, Barbara Jachowicz, trans. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991).

Delano, Kenneth J., Many Worlds, One God (Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press, 1977).

Delsemme, Armand, Our Cosmic Origins – From the Big Bang to the Emergence of and Intelligence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Drake, Frank, Intelligent Life in Space (New York: Macmillan, 1962).

Feinberg, Gerald, and Robert Shapiro, Life Beyond Earth – The Intelligent Earthling's Guide to Life in the Universe (New York: William Morrow, 1980).

Goldsmith, Donald, and Tobias Owen, The Search for Life in the Universe, 3d ed. (Sausalito, CA: University Science Books, 2002).

Grady, Monica, Astrobiology (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001).

Grinspoon, David, Lonely Planets – The Natural Philosophy of Alien Life (New York: HarperCollins, 2003).

Harrison, Albert A., After Contact – The Human Response to Extraterrestrial Life (Cambridge, MA: Plenum Press, 1997).

Heidman, Jean, Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Storm Dunlop, trans. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Holmes, David C., Captain, U. S. N., The Search for Life on Other Worlds (New York: Bantam, 1966).

Hoyle, Fred, The Intelligent Universe (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983).

Jakosky, Bruce, The Search for Life on Other Planets (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Jones, Harold Spencer, Sir, Life on Other Worlds (London: English Universities Press, 1940).

Koerner, David, and Simon LeVay, Here Be Dragons – The Scientific Quest for Extraterrestrial Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Lamb, David, The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence – A Philosophical Inquiry (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Lemonick, Michael D., Other Worlds – The Search for Life in the Universe (New York: Touchstone, 1999).

MacGowan, Roger A., and Frederick I. Ordway III, Intelligence in the Universe (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1966).

Parker, Barry, Alien Life – The Search for Extraterrestrials and Beyond (Cambridge, MA: Basic Books, 1998).

Posin, Dan Q., Life Beyond our Planet – A Scientific Look at Other Worlds in Space (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962).

Rood, Robert T., and James S. Trefil, Are We Alone? The Possibility of Extraterrestrial Civilizations (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1981).

Rublowsky, John, Is Anybody Out There? (New York: Walker & Company, 1962).

Sagan, Carl, The Cosmic Connection (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1973).

Schmidt, Stanley, Aliens and Alien Societies – A Writer's Guide to Creating Extraterrestrial Life Forms (Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books, 1995).

Shostak, Seth, Sharing the Universe – Perspectives on Extraterrestrial Life (Berkeley: Berkeley Hills Books, 1998).

Shostak, Seth, The Search for Intelligent Life in Space (Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 1999).

Shostak, Seth, and Alex Barnett, Cosmic Company – The Search for Life in the Universe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Sneath, P. H. A., Planets and Life (New York: Funk and Wagnells, 1970).

Spangenburg, Ray, and Kit Moser, Life on Other Worlds (New York: Franklin Watts, 2002).

Sullivan, Walter, We Are Not Alone (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Tyson, Neil de Grasse, and Donald Goldsmith, Origins – 14 Billion Years of Cosmic Evolution (New York: W. W. Norton, 2004).

Ulmschneider, Peter, Intelligent Life in the Universe – From Common Origins to the Future of Humanity (New York: Springer, 2003).

Ward, Peter D., and Donald Brownlee, Rare Earth – Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe (New York: Copernicus/Springer-Verlag, 2000).


III. "Hard" Science Fiction Featuring ETIs


Anderson, Kevin J., and Doug Beason, Reflections in a Magnetic Mirror, in Lou Aronica and Shawna McCarthy, eds., Full Spectrum (New York: Bantam, 1988).

Anthony, Piers, Chthon (Xlibris, 1967).

Asimov, Isaac, The Gods Themselves (New York: Bantam, 1972).

Barlowe, Wayne Douglas, et al, Barlowe's Guide to Extraterrestrials (New York: Workman Publishing, 1979).

Baxter, Stephen, "The Sun-People," "Gossamer," and "Cilia-of-Gold," in Vacuum Diagrams (New York: Harper Prism, 1997).

Benford, Gregory, "A Dance to Strange Musics," in David G. Hartwell, ed., Year's Best SF 4 (New York: HarperCollins, 1999).

Benford, Gregory, In the Ocean of Night (New York: The Dial Press/James Wade, 1972).

Bova, Ben, Voyagers (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981).

Bradbury, Ray, The Martian Chronicles (New York: Bantam, 1950).

Brin, David, Sundiver (New York: Bantam, 1980).

Brin, David, Startide Rising (New York: Bantam, 1983).

Brin, David, "The Crystal Spheres," "Just a Hint," and "Lungfish," in The River of Time (New York: Bantam, 1987).

Brin, David, Earth (New York: Bantam, 1990).

Brin, David, "The Dogma of Otherness," "Story Notes," "Bonding to Genji," and "The Commonwealth of Wonder," in Otherness (New York: Bantam, 1994).

Campbell, John W., Jr., Who Goes There? (New York: Street & Smith, 1934).

Clarke, Arthur C., Childhood's End (New York: Random House, 1953).

Clarke, Arthur C., 2001: A Space Odyssey (New York: New American Library, 1999).

Clarke, Arthur C., 2010: Odyssey Two (New York: Ballantine Books, 1982).

Clement, Hal, Mission of Gravity (New York: Doubleday, 1954).

Clement, Hal, Close to Critical (New York: Ballantine, 1964).

Clement, Hal, Space Lash (New York: Doubleday, 1969).

Crichton, Michael, The Andromeda Strain (New York: Ballantine, 1969).

Chrichton, Michael, Sphere (New York: Random House, 1987).

Forward, Robert L., Dragon's Egg (New York: Ballantine, 1980).

Green, Joseph, Conscience Interplanetary (New York: Daw Books, 1974).

Gunn, James, The Listeners (Dallas: BenBella Books, 1972).

Haldeman, Joe, The Forever War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974).

Hoyle, Fred, The Black Cloud (New York: Signet Books, 1957).

Kepler, Johannes, Somnium, in Edward Rosen, trans., Kepler's Somnium: The Dream or Posthumous Work on Lunar Astronomy (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967).

LeGuin, Ursula, Three Hainish Novels (Garden City, NY: Nelson Doubleday, 1967).

LeGuin, Ursula, The Left Hand of Darkness (New York: Walker and Company, 1969).

Lem, Stanislaw, Solaris, Joanna Kilmartin and Steve Cox, trans. (New York: Harvest Books, 1987).

Lindsay, David, A Voyage to Arcturus (New York: Macmillan, 1991).

McCollum, Michael, Life Probe (New York: Ballantine Books, 1983).

McDevitt, Jack, The Hercules Text (New York: Ace Science Fiction, 1986).

Moffitt, Donald, The Jupiter Theft (New York: Ballantine Books, 1977).

Niven, Larry, Protector (Newport Beach, CA: Books on Tape, 1998).

Niven, Larry, World of Ptavvs (New York: Ballantine Books, 1991)

Piper, H. Beam, "Omnilingual," in Asimov, Isaac, and Martin H. Greenberg, eds., The Great SF Stories #19: 1957 (New York: Daw Books, 1989).

Pohl, Frederik, Man Plus (New York: Random House, 1976).

Preiss, Byron, ed., The Planets (New York: Bantam, 1985).

Sagan, Carl, Contact (New York: Pocket Books, 1985).

Sawyer, Robert J., Illegal Alien (New York: Ace Books, 1997).

Sawyer, Robert J., Factoring Humanity (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 1998).

Sawyer, Robert J., Calculating God (New York: TOR Books, 2000).

Sheckley, Robert, "Specialist," in Noel Keyes, ed., Contact (New York: Paperback Library, 1963).

Sheffield, Charles, Between the Strokes of Night (New York: Baen Books, 1985).

Spinrad, Norman, "The Helping Hand," in Lou Aronica, et al, eds., Full Spectrum 3 (New York: Doubleday, n.d.).

Stapledon, W. Olaf, Last and First Men (New York: Jonathan Cape and Harrison Smith, 1931).

Stapledon, Olaf, Star Maker (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004).

Stewart, Ian, and Jack Cohen, Wheelers (New York: Warner Books, 2000).

Tiptree, James, Jr., "Love is the Plan the Plan is Death," in Stephen Goldin, ed., The Alien Condition (New York: Ballantine, 1973).

Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin, Collected Science Fiction, Adam Starchild, ed. (Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, 1979).

Varley, John, The Ophiuchi Hotline (New York: Dial Press/James Wade, 1977).

Weinbaum, Stanley G., "The Lotus Eaters," Astounding Stories, April, 1935.

Weinbaum, Stanley G., A Martian Odyssey (New York: Lancer Books, 1962).

Zerwick, Chloe and Harrison Brown, The Cassiopeia Affair (New York: Modern Literary Editions, 1968).


IV. ETI Portraiture in American Film and Television


2001: A Space Odyssey. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. 1968. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2001.

Abyss, The. Dir. James Cameron. 1993. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2002.

ALF, Season One (1986). Created by Tom Patchett and Paul Fusco. DVD. Lionsgate Home Entertainment, 2004.

Alien. Dir. Ridley Scott. 1979. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 1999.

Brain From Planet Arous, The. Dir. Nathan H. Juran. 1958. DVD. Image Entertainment, 2000.

Close Encounters of the Third Kind – We Are Not Alone. Dir. Steven Spielberg. 1977. DVD. Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2002.

Cocoon. Dir. Ron Howard. 1985. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Video, 2004.

Day the Earth Stood Still, The. Dir. Robert Wise. 1951. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2002.

"Devil in the Dark, The" (1967). Star Trek. Dir. Joseph Pevney. DVD. Paramount Pictures, 2000.

Dune – Director's Cut. Dir. John Harrison. 2000. DVD. Artisan Home Entertainment, 2000.

Enemy Mine. Dir. Wolfgang Peterson. 1985. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2000.

E. T.: The Extraterrestrial. Dir. Steven Spielberg. 1982. DVD. Universal Studios, 2002.

Forbidden Planet. Dir. Fred McLeod Wilcox. 1956. DVD. Warner Home Video, 1999.

"Galaxy Being, The" (1963). The Outer Limits. Dir. Leslie Stevens. DVD. MGM Home Entertainment, 2002.

Galaxy Quest. Dir. Dean Parisot. 1999. DVD. DreamWorks LLC, 2000.

Independence Day. Dir. Roland Emmerich. 1996. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2002.

Invasion of the Body Snatchers. Dir. Don Siegel. 1955. DVD. Artisan Entertainment, 2002.

Invisible Invaders. Dir. Edward L. Cahn. 1959. DVD. Metro Goldwyn Mayer Home Entertainment, 2003.

It Came From Outer Space. Dir. Jack Arnold. 1953. DVD. Universal Studios, 2002.

Killers From Space. Dir. W. Lee Wilder. 1954. DVD. Alpha Video, 2002.

Little Shop of Horrors. Dir. Frank Oz. 1986. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2000.

Lost in Space, Season One (1965). Created by Irwin Allen. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Film Company, 2003.

Man From Planet X, The. Dir. Edgar G. Ulmer. 1951. DVD. MGM Home Entertainment, 2001.

Mars Attacks! Dir. Tim Burton. 1996. DVD. Warner Home Video, 1997.

Men in Black. Dir. Barry Sonnenfeld. 1997. DVD. Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2002.

"Metamorphosis" (1967). Star Trek. Dir. Ralph Senensky. DVD. Paramount Pictures, 2000.

Mork and Mindy, Season One (1978-9). Created by Joe Glauberg, Garry Marshall, and Dale McRaven. DVD. Paramount, 2004.

My Favorite Martian, Season One (1963). Created by John L. Greene. DVD. Rhino Home Video, 2004.

My Stepmother is an Alien. Dir. Richard Benjamin. 1988. DVD. Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2003.

Predator. Dir. John McTiernan. 1987. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 1998.

Signs. Dir. M. Night Shyamalan. 2002. DVD. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 2003.

Solaris. Dir. Andre Tarkovsky. 1972. DVD. The Criterion Collection, 2002.

Species. Dir. Roger Donaldson. 1995. DVD. MGM Home Entertainment, 2004.

Star Wars Episode IV. Dir. George Lucas. 1977. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006.

Star Trek – The Motion Picture – The Director's Edition. Dir. Robert Wise. 1979. DVD. Paramount Pictures, 2001.

Superman – The Movie. Dir. Richard Donner. 1978. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2001.

The Thing. Dir. Christian Nyby. 1951. DVD. Warner Bros. Entertainment, 2003.


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   • SETI