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Also called semiology, the study of meaning, concerned both with the relationship of words and symbols to the ideas or objects that they represent, and with tracing the histories of meanings and changes that have taken place in them. Semantics is thus a branch both of linguistics and logic. General semantics, propounded primarily by Alfred Koryzbski, holds that habits of thought have lagged behind the language and logic of: it attacks such Aristotelian logical proposals as that nothing can be not-x and x, maintaining that these are simplifications no longer valid.

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   • LOGIC