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  1. Use of an executable model to represent the behavior of an object. During testing the computational hardware, the external environment, and even code segments may be simulated.

  2. A model that behaves or operates like a given system when provided a set of controlled inputs.

  3. Experimentation in the space of theories, or a combination of experimentation and theorization. Some numerical simulations are programs that represent a model for how nature works. Usually, the outcome of a simulation is as much a surprise as the outcome of a natural event, due to the richness and uncertainty of computation.
Contrast with emulation.

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