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List of entries in The Complete Book of Spaceflight




Advanced propulsion systems and related concepts

Alcubierre Warp Drive
antigravity
antimatter propulsion
arcjet
beamed-energy propulsion
black hole
Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program (BPPP)
Bussard interstellar ramjet. See interstellar ramjet
contact ion thruster
Cosmos 1
electric propulsion
electromagnetic propulsion
electron bombardment thruster
electrostatic propulsion
electrothermal propulsion
exotic matter
faster-than-light (FTL) travel
generation ship
Hall effect thruster
helicon thruster
ICAN (Ion Compressed Antimatter Nuclear) rocket. See antimatter propulsion
interstellar ark. See generation ship
interstellar ramjet
ion propulsion
Kiwi
laser propulsion
...Off-board laser propulsion
......Laser-powered launching
......Laser lightsails
...Onboard laser propulsion
light barrier
Lorentz force turning
M2P2 (Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma Propulsion)
magnetic levitation launch-assist
magnetic sail. See space sail
magnetosplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster
microwave plasma thruster
NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)
nuclear power for spacecraft
nuclear propulsion
nuclear pulse rocket
Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS)
nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP)
1-g spacecraft
Orion, Project
photon propulsion
pulse detonation engine
pulsed-plasma thruster
Quantum Vacuum Forces Project
RAIR (ram-augmented interstellar rocket). See interstellar ramjet
reactionless drive
relativistic effects
resistojet
SERT (Space Electric Rocket Test)
solar-electric propulsion (SEP)
space ark. See generation ship
space drive. See reactionless drive
space sail
star drive. See reactionless drive
starship
subluminal
superluminal
tachyon
thermionic
time dilation. See relativistic effects
warp drive
vacuum energy drive
wormhole
...artificial wormholes
...natural wormholes
XIPS (xenon-ion propulsion system)
VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket)
zero point energy (ZPE)

......Also see: Interstellar and precursor missions; Physics and astronomy

Aerodynamics and aeronautics

aeroballistics
aerobraking
aerocapture
aerodynamics
aeronautics
aerospace
aerothermodynamic border
air-breathing engine
airfoil
airframe
anacoustic zone
angle of attack
atmospheric braking. See aerobraking
atmospheric trajectory
buffeting
cavitation
center of pressure
coefficient of drag
cone stability
control surface
drag
duct
duct propulsion
dynamic behavior
dynamic load
dynamic pressure
dynamic response
dynamic stability
elevon
fin
flap
flight path
flight path angle
frontal area
glide
glide angle
glide path
heat barrier
hypersonic
jet steering
lift
lift-drag ratio
Mach number
maneuverability
propulsion
pulse-jet
ramjet
regimes of flight
scramjet
sonic speed
sound barrier
speed of sound
stub fins
subsonic
supersonic
terminal velocity
thermal barrier
transonic
wind tunnel

Aerospace administrators

Arnold, Henry H. ("Hap") (1886-1950)
Augustine, Norman R. (1935- )
Beggs, James Montgomery (1926- )
Berkner, Lloyd V. (1905-1967)
Bondi, Hermann (1919- )
Bush, Vannevar (1890-1974)
Cortright, Edgar M. (1923- )
Doolittle, James Harold (1896-1993)
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1890-1969)
Fletcher, James Chipman (1919-1991)
Frosch, Robert A. (1928- )
Gilruth, Robert R. (1913- )
Glennan, T(homas) Keith (1905-1995)
Goldin, Daniel Saul (1940- )
Hagen, John P. (1908-1990)
Hoover, George W.
Jastrow, Robert (1925- )
Kennedy, John F. (1916-1963)
Kraft, Christopher Colombus Jr. (1924- )
Kranz, Eugene ("Gene") F. (1933- )
Krieger, Robert L. (1916-1990)
Lunney, Glynn S. (1936- )
Marshall, George C. (1880-1959)
O'Keefe, Sean (1956- )
Ordway, Frederick Ira III (1927- )
Paine, Thomas O. (1921-1992)
Phillips, Samuel C. (1921-1990)
Pickering, William H. (1910- )
Reagan, Ronald (1911- )
Schneider, William C.
Schriever, Bernard A. (1910- )
Seamans, Robert C., Jr. (1918- )
Toftoy, Holger N. (1903-1967)
Vandenberg, Hoyt S. (1899-1954)
Victory, John F. (1893-1975)
Webb, James Edwin (1906-1992)
Williams, Walter C. (1919-1995)
Yardley, John F. (1925-2001)

Aerospace companies

Aerojet Corporation
Arianespace
Beal Aerospace Technologies
Boeing
Celestis
China Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC)
Douglas Aircraft. See McDonnell Douglas
Energia Rocket & Space Corporation (Energia RSC)
Eurospace
International Launch Services (ILS)
Krunichev State Research and Production Space Center
Lockheed Martin
Martin Marietta. See Lockheed Martin
McDonnell-Douglas
North American Aviation
Rockwell **
Sea Launch

Aerospace and aviation pioneers

Crossfield, Albert Scott (1921- )
Kittinger, Joseph W. (1928- )
Lindbergh, Charles Augustus (1902-1974)
Simons, David G. (1922- )
Walker, Joseph Albert (1921-1966)
Yeager, Charles (" Chuck" ) E. (1923- )

......Also see: Astronauts and cosmonauts; History of rocketry, spaceflight, and aviation

Astronauts and cosmonauts

Akiyama, Toyohiro (1944- )
Aldrin, Edwin Eugene (" Buzz" ), Jr. (1930- )
Anders, William Alison (1933- )
Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930- )
astronaut
Avdeyev, Sergei (1956- )
Bean, Alan LaVern (1932- )
Belyayev, Pavel Ivanovich (1925-1970)
Berezovoi, Anatoly Nikolayevich (1942- )
Borman, Frank (1928- )
Brand, Vance (1931- )
Carpenter, Malcolm Scott (1925- )
Carr, Gerald P. (1932- )
Cernan, Eugene Andrew (1934- )
Chaffee, Roger Bruce (1935-1967)
Collins, Eileen Marie (1956- )
Collins, Michael (1930- )
Conrad, Charles " Pete" Jr. (1930-1999)
Cooper, Leroy Gordon Jr. (1927- )
cosmonaut
Crippen, Robert Laurel (1937- )
Cunningham, R. Walter (1932- )
Dobrovolsky, Georgy Timofeyevich (1928-1971)
Duke, Charles Moss, Jr. (1935- )
Eisele, Donn F. (1930-1987)
Evans, Ronald E. (1933-1990)
Gagarin, Yuri Alexeyevich (1934-1968)
Garneau, Marc (1949- )
Garriott, Owen K. (1930- )
Gibson, Edward G. (1936- )
Glenn, John Herschel, Jr. (1921- )
Gordon, Richard F., Jr. (1929- )
Grissom, Virgil Ivan (" Gus" ) (1926-1967)
Haise, Fred Wallace, Jr. (1933- )
Irwin, James Benson (1930-1991)
Kerwin, Joseph Peter (1932- )
Komarov, Vladimir Mikhavlovich (1927-1967)
Lebedev, Valentin V. (1942- )
Leonov, Alexei Archipovich (1934- )
Lousma, Jack Robert (1936- )
Lovell, James Arthur Jr. (1928- )
Lucid, Shannon Matilda Wells (1943- )
Makorov, Oleg G. (1933- )
Mattingley, Thomas K. II (1936- )
McAuliffe, S. Christa (Corrigan) (1948-1986)
McCandless, Bruce II (1937- )
McDivitt, James A. (1929- )
Mercury Seven
Mercury Thirteen
mission specialist
Mitchell, Edgar Dean (1930- )
Morgan, Barbara R. (1951- )
Musgrave, (Franklin) Story (1935- )
payload specialist
Pogue, William R. (1930- )
Polyakov, Valery Vladimirovich (1942- )
Remek, Vladimir (1948- )
Ride, Sally Kristen (1951- )
Roosa, Stuart A. (1933-1994)
Savitskaya, Svetlana (1948- )
Schirra, Walter (" Wally" ) Marty, Jr. (1935- )
Schmitt, Harrison Hagan (1935- )
Schweikart, Russel L. (1935- )
Scott, David R. (1932- )
Shepard, Alan Bartlett, Jr. (1923-2001)
Slayton, Donald Kent (" Deke" ) (1924-1993)
space passenger
Stafford, Thomas P. (1930- )
Sullivan, Kathryn D. (1951- )
Swigert, John Leonard (Jack), Jr. (1931-1982)
Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna (1937- )
Thagard, Norman E. (1943- )
Tito, Dennis (1941- )
Titov, Gherman Stepanovich (1935- )
Titov, Vladimir Georgievich (1947- )
Truly, Richard H. (1937- )
Vela, Rudolfo Neri (1952- )
Weitz, Paul J. (1932- )
White, Edward Higgins, II (1930-1967)
women in space
Worden, Alfred Merrill (1932- )
Young, John Watts (1930- )

Astronaut equipment and training

astronautics
egress
environmental space chamber
extravehicular activity (EVA). See spacewalk
Hand-held Maneuvering Unit
illicit cargo
ingress
Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV)
Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU)
MASTIF (Multiple Axis Space Test Inertia Facility)
Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS)
parabolic flight
shirtsleeve environment
spacewalk
spin-off
stand-up spacewalk
weightlessness
zero gravity

Astronomy satellites and orbiting observatories

ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment on the Space Station)
ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer)
ACRIMSAT (Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite)
ALEXIS (Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors)
AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer)
ANS (Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet)
Ariel
ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth)
ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics)
Astrobiology Explorer
Astro (shuttle science payload)
Astro-E
Astro-F. See IRIS
Astron
astronomy satellites
Asuka. See ASCA
AXAF (Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility). See Chandra X-ray Observatory
BBXRT (Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope)
BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X)
CATSAT (Cooperative Astrophysics and Technology Satellite)
Chandra X-ray Observatory
CHIPS (Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer)
CMBPOL (Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization)
COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer)
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)
Constellation-X
Copernicus Observatory. See OAO (Orbiting Astronomical Observatory)
COROT (Convection, Rotation, and Planetary Transits)
Corsa-A
Corsa-B. See Hakucho
COS-B
Darwin
DXS (Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer)
Eddington
Einstein Observatory. See HEAO-2
EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer)
EXIST (Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope)
Exosat
FAIR (Filled-Aperture Infrared Telescope)
FIRST (Far Infrared and Submillimetre Space Telescope). See Herschel Space Observatory
FUSE (Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer)
GAIA (Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics)
GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer)
Gamma
gamma-ray astronomy satellites
Ginga
Granat
GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope)
Gravity Probe A
Gravity Probe B
Great Observatories
Hakucho
HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy)
Haruka. See HALCA
HEAO (High Energy Astrophysical Observatory)
...HEAO-1
...HEAO-2
...HEAO-3
Herschel Space Observatory
HETE (High Energy Transient Experiment)
High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Mission
Hipparcos
HNX (Heavy Nuclei Explorer)
Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
IBSS (Infrared Background Signature Survey)
IEH (International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker)
infrared astronomy satellites
INTEGRAL (International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory)
IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite)
IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor)
IRSI (Infrared Space Interferometer). See Darwin
IRTS (Infrared Telescope in Space)
ISO (Infrared Space Observatory)
IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer)
Joule
Kepler
Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO)
Life Finder (LF)
LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna)
MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe)
MAXIM (Microarcsecond X-ray Imaging) Pathfinder
MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars)
NGSS. See Next Generation Sky Survey
NGST. See Next Generation Space Telescope
OAO (Orbiting Astronomical Observatory)
ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer). See SPAS
OWL (Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Detectors)
Planck
Planet Imager (PI)
PRIME (Primordial Explorer)
radio astronomy satellites
RadioAstron
RAE (Radiation Astronomy Explorer)
ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite)
RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer)
SAS (Small Astronomy Satellite)
...SAS-1
...SAS-2
...SAS-3
SIM (Space Interferometry Mission)
SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)
SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy)
SPEAR (Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation)
Spectrum-X-Gamma
SPIDR (Spectroscopy and Photometry of the Intergalactic Medium' s Diffuse Radiation)
SPIRIT (Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope)
STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle)
SUVO (Space Ultraviolet Optical Telescope)
SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite)
Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer
Tenma
Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF)
Uhuru. See SAS-1 (Small Astronomy Satellite 1)
ultraviolet astronomy satellites
VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program)
WIRE (Wide-Field Infrared Explorer)
XEUS (X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission)
XMM-Newton
X-ray astronomy satellites

......Also see: Solar probes and satellites; Lunar missions, unmanned; Planetary missions

Atmospheric physics

aeronomy
aeropause
atmosphere
exosphere
ionized layers
ionosphere
magnetosphere
magnetotail
mesosphere
plasma sheet
radiation belt
stratosphere
thermosphere
troposphere
upper-air observation
Van Allen Belts

......Also see: Atmospheric and magnetospheric probes

Atmospheric and Magnetospheric probes

ADE (Air Density Explorer)
AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere)
AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder)
Akebono
Alouette
AMPTE (Active Magnetosphere Particle Tracer Explorer)
Azur
BE (Beacon Explorer)
CINDI (Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigations)
CloudSat
Cluster
CRRS (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite)
DE (Dynamics Explorer)
Denpa
DME (Direct Measurement Explorer)
Elektron
FAST (Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer)
France 1
GEC (Global Electrodynamics Connections)
Geotail
GIFTS (Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer)
HCMM (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission)
HEOS (Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite)
Highwater
IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration)
Interbol
Ionosphere Mappers
ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer)
ISIS (International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies)
ISS (Ionospheric Sounding Satellite)
ITM Wave Imaging
Jikiken
Kyokko
MagConst (Magnetospheric Constellation)
Magnetosphere Probe
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)
Magsat (Magnetic Field Satellite)
MicroLab
Munin
Ohzora
\'d8rsted
PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar)
Polar
Polar BEAR (Polar Beacon Experiment and Auroral Research)
Prognoz
RBM (Radiation Belt Mappers)
SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment)
SAMPEX (Solar Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer)
SNOE (Student Nitric Oxide Explorer)
SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment)
SPARCLE (Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment)
Taiyo
TWINS (Two-wide Angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometer)
UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite)
Ume. See ISS
Wind

Ballistics

ballistic trajectory
ballistics

......See also: Physics and astronomy; Space cannons and guns

Balloons

ballute
Manhigh, Project
radiosonde
Stargazer, Project
Ultra Long-Duration Balloon (ULDB) Project

Colonies in Space

Artemis Project, The
Bernal sphere
bubble colony
Island One. See O'Neill-type space colony
L5 colony. See O' Neill-type space colony
L5 Society
O'Neill-type space colony
space colony
terraforming

Communications satellites

ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite)
AFSATCOM (Air Force Satellite Communications System)
Anik
ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay Technology Mission)
Astra
Ayama. See ECS (Experimental Communications Satellite)
BS- (Broadcasting Satellite)
COMETS (Communications and Broadcasting Experiment Test Satellite)
Comsat (Communications Satellite Corporation)
Courier
CS- (Communications Satellite)
DRTS (Data Relay Test Satellite)
DSCS (Defense Satellite Communications System)
Early Bird (communications satellite)
Echo
EchoStar
ECS (European Space Agency Communications Satellites)
ECS (Experimental Communications Satellite)
Ekran
Ekspress
Eutelsat (European Telecommunications Satellite Organization)
FLTSATCOM (Fleet Satellite Communications)
Fuji. See JAS-1
Galaxy
Garuda
Geizer
Globalstar
GLOMR (Global Low Orbiting Message Relay)
Gonets
Gorizont
ICO
IDCSP (Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program)
Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)
Inmarsat
Insat
Intelsat (International Telecommunications Satellite Organization)
Iridium
JAS (Japanese Amateur Satellite)
Kakehashi. See COMETS (Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite)
Kupon
Leasat (Leased Satellite)
LES (Lincoln Experimental Satellite)
LSAT. See Olympus
Luch
MACSAT (Multiple Access Communications Satellite)
MARECS
MicroSat
Molniya (satellite)
Morelos
Nimiq
Olympus
Orbcomm
OSCAR (Orbiting Satellite for Communication by Amateur Radio)
Palapa
Raduga
Relay
REX (Radiation Experiment)
Sakura. See CS- (Communications Satellite)
SARSAT (Search and Rescue Satellite)
Satcom
SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment)
SCS (Small Communications Satellite). See MicroSat
SECS (Special Experimental Communications System)
Statsionar. See Raduga
STENTOR (Satellite de T\'e9l\'e9communications pour Exp\'e9riences de Nouvelles Technologies en Orbit)
Syncom
TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System)
Teledesic
Telstar
UFO (UHF Follow-on) satellites
West Ford

Communications technology and terminology

antenna
bandwidth
beacon
bird
bit
broadband
carrier
C-band. See frequency bands
coherent
communications satellite
de-spun antenna
direct broadcast satellite (DBS)
directional antenna
downlink
Earth station
footprint
frequency
frequency bands
frequency coordination
high-gain antenna (HGA)
interference
intersatellite link
Ka-band. See frequency bands
K-band. See frequency bands
Ku-band. See frequency bands
L-band. See frequency bands
modulation
multiplexing
one-way light time (OWLT)
packetizing
rain outage
round-trip light time
S-band. See frequency bands
subcarrier
telemetry
time-division multiplexing (TDM)
transducer
transponder
uplink
X-band. See frequency bands

Debris in space

CERISE (Characterisation de l' Environment Radio-electrique par un Instrument Spatial Embarque)
ODERACS (Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere)

Disasters in space

Challenger disaster
Nedelin Catastrophe. See Mars

Earth observation satellites and programs

ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observation Satellite)
AEROS (Advanced Earth Resources Observational Satellite)
Ajisai. See EGS
ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite)
Aqua
Aura
BIRD (Bi-spectral Infrared Detection satellite)
CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Observations)
CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload)
Coriolis
CRSP (Commercial Remote Sensing Program)
Early Bird (Earth resources satellite)
Earth resources satellites
EGS (Experimental Geodetic Satellite)
Envisat (Environmental Satellite)
EO (Earth Observing) satellites
EOS (Earth Observing System)
EOS Chem (Earth Observing System Chemistry). See Aura
EOS PM (Earth Observing System PM). See Aqua
Equator-S
ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment)
ERBS (Earth Radiation Budget Satellite)
ERS (Earth Resources Satellite)
ERS (Environmental Research Satellite)
ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellites)
Etalon
Fuyo. See JERS (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite)
GCOM (Global Change Observing Mission)
Geo-IK
geodesy
geodesy satellites
GEOS (Geodynamic Experimental Ocean Satellite)
Geosat
GFO (Geosat Follow-On)
GFZ-1 (GeoForschungsZentrum)
GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment)
ICESAT (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite)
Ikonos
IRS (Indian Remote Sensing satellite)
Jason
JERS (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite)
Lageos (Laser Geodynamics Satellite)
Landsat
Lewis and Clark
Midori. See ADEOS
Momo. See MOS
MOS (Marine Observation Satellite)
Musson. See Geo-IK
OGO (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory)
Orbview
Pageos (Passive GEOS)
PICASSO-CENA. See CALIPSO
POES (Polar Operational Environmental Satellite)
QuickScat (Quick Scatterometer)
QuikTOMS (Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer)
RADARSAT
remote sensing
RORSAT (Radar Ocean Surveillance Satellite)
Seasat
Seastar/SeaWiFS
Seawinds
SECOR (Sequential Collation of Range)
SPOT (Satellite Probatoire d' Observation de la Terre)
SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission)
Stella
Terra
TERRIERS (Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources)
THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interaction during Substorms)
TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetic Dynamics satellite)
TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer)
TOPEX-Poseidon
Triana
TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission)
VCL (Vegetation Canopy Lidar)

Facilities and research establishments

Aberdeen Proving Ground
Air Force Flight Test Center
Ames Research Center
Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA)
Ballistic Research Laboratory. See Aberdeen Proving Ground
Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC)
Edwards Air Force Base
Flight Research Center
Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center
Glenn Research Center (GRC)
Goddard Institute for Space Studies
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Kaliningrad
Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
Langley Research Center
Lewis Research Center. See Glenn Research Center
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Mississippi Test Facility
Moffett Federal Airfield
Muroc Army Air Field. See Edwards Air Force Base
Patrick Air Force Base
Plum Brook Research Station
Spadeadam Rocket Establishment
Stennis Space Center (SSC)
Wright Air Development Division

History of rocketry, spaceflight, and aviation

" A" series of German rockets
A.T. (Aerial Target)
aeolipile
Albertus Magnus (1193-1280)
Archytas (c.428-c.350 B.C.)
Bacon, Roger (c.1214-c.1292)
Chinese fire-rockets
firsts in spaceflight
Fontana, Giovanni da (c.1395-1455)
Froissart, Jean (c.1337-c.1410)
guided missiles, postwar development
Hero of Alexandria (1st century A.D.)
International Geophysical Year (IGY)
International Quiet Sun Years (IQSY)
Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630)
Kettering Bug
Kummersdorf
MOUSE (Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of the Earth)
Muratori (14th century)
Newton, Isaac (1643-1727)
OKB-1
OKB-52
OKB-586
Orbiter, Project
Paperclip, Operation
Peenemunde
rocketry, history
Space Race
Stewart Committee
Tipu Sultan (c.1750-1799)
X planes

Instrumentation

accelerometer
altimeter
avionics
CCD (charge-coupled device)
dust detector
infrared radiometer
lidar (light detection and ranging)
magnetometer
majority rule circuit
photometer
piggyback experiment
plasma detector
plasma wave detector
polarimeter
radar
radiometer
sensor
spectrometer
synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

Inter-satellite communications

Constellation-X
ION-F (Ionospheric Observation Nanosatellite Formation)
Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer (NCT)
OICETS (Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite)
Space Technology 3. See Starlight
Space Technology 5. See Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer
Starlight
Three-Corner Constellation

Interstellar and precursor interstellar missions

Daedalus, Project
intergalactic travel
interstellar precursor mission
interstellar probe
Interstellar Probe
Longshot, Project
Thousand Astronomical Unit Probe (TAU)

Launch and prelaunch technology and terminology

BECO (booster engine cutoff)
blockhouse
burn pond
command destruct
complex
countdown
crawler-transporter
crawlerway
crew safety system (CSS)
deluge collection pond
explosive bolt
first motion
flame bucket
fly-away disconnects
gantry
go, no-go
hold
holding pond
ice frost
launch
launch control center
launch pad
launch support and hold-down arm
launch umbilical tower
launch vehicle
launch window
launcher deflector
liftoff
MECO (main engine cutoff)
pad abort
payload integration
pitchover
prelaunch
prelaunch test
range safety officer
scrub
service tower
synergic curve
thrust commit
transporter/launcher
umbilical connections
umbilical cord
umbilical swing arm
umbilical tower
Vertical Assembly Building (VAB)
wet emplacement
white room

Launch sites

Alcantara
Andoya Rocket Range
Atlantic Missile Range (AMR)
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Kennedy
Eastern Space and Missile Center (ESMC)
Eastern Test Range
Esrange
Guiana Space Center
Hammaguira
ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science)
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Kagoshima Space Center
Kaputsin Yar
Kiruna. See Esrange
Kodiak Launch Complex
Kourou. See Guiana Space Center
Kwajalein Missile Range
Matagorda Island
Musudan
Palmachim
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
San Marco (launch site)
Sriharikota High-Altitude Range Center (SHAR)
Svobodny
Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC)
Tanegashima Space Center
Tyuratam. See Baikonur Cosmodrome
Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB)
Wallops Island Flight Facility
Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC)
White Sands Missile Range
White Sands Proving Ground
Woomera
Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC)
Yavne

Launch vehicles and missiles

Able
Aerobee
Agena
Angara
Athena (launch vehicle)
Ariane
...Ariane 1
...Arane 2/3
...Ariane 4
...Ariane 5
ASLV (Advanced Satellite Launch Vehicle)
Atlas
...History
...Atlas-Able
...Atlas-Mercury. See Mercury-Atlas
...Atlas Agena
...Atlas Centaur
...Atlas II-Centaur
...Atlas III
...Atlas V
ballistic missile
Black Arrow
Black Brant
Black Knight
Blue Scout Junior
Blue Streak
Bomarc
Bumper WAC
Buran
buzz bomb (V1). See "V" weapons
Centaur
Conestoga
Corporal
Cosmos (launch vehicle)
cruise missile
Cyclone. See Tsyklon
CZ (Chang Zeng). See Long March
Delta
...Delta II
...Delta III and IV
Diamant
Dnepr
EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle)
Energia
Eurockot. See Rokot
Europa. See ELDO (under "Space Agencies")
expendable launch vehicle (ELV)
Gemini-Titan II
GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)
guided missile
H series (Japanese launch vehicles)
...H-1
...H-2
...H-2A
heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLV)
Indian launch vehicles
inertial upper stage (IUS)
IRBM (Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile)
Iris
J-1 (Japanese launch vehicle)
Japanese launch vehicles
JAWSAT
Juno
...Juno I
...Juno II
Jupiter
...Jupiter A
...Jupiter C and America' s space debut
L series (Japanese launch vehicles)
Little Joe
Long March (Chang Zeng, CZ)
...First generation
.....CZ-1
...Second generation
......FB-1
......CZ-2A
......CZ-2B
......CZ-2C
...Third generation
......CZ-3
......CZ-3A
......CZ-3B
......CZ-3C
......CZ-4A
......CZ-2D
......CZ-2E
......CZ-4B
......CZ-2F
......CZ-2EA
M series (Japanese launch vehicles)
...M-3
...M-4
...M-5
Matador
Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Redstone
Mercury-Scout
Minotaur
missile
Molniya (launch vehicle)
Mu. See M series (Japanese launch vehicles)
N series (Japanese launch vehicles)
N-1
Navaho
Nova (rocket)
Payload Assist Module (PAM)
Pegasus (launch vehicle)
Private
Proton
PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle)
" R" series of Russian missiles
...R-1
...R-2
...R-3
...R-7
...R-12 and R-14
...R-36
Redstone
reusable launch vehicle (RLV)
Rockoon
Rockot
Roton
Russian launch vehicles
Saturn
...History
...Saturn I
...Saturn IB
...Saturn V
Scout
Sergeant\tab\tab\tab \tab\tab
Shavit
Shtil
single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO)
Skylark
SLV-3
Snark
sounding rocket
Soyuz (launch vehicle)
Space Launch Initiative (SLI)
Space Shuttle
Sputnik (launch vehicle)
Start-1
Strela
Taurus
Thor
...Thor-Able
...Thor-Abel I, II, III, and IV
...Thor-Able Star
...Thor-Agena A, B, and D
...Thor Delta. See Delta
Titan
...Titan I
...Titan II
...Titan III
...Titan 34 and Commercial Titan
...Titan IV
Tsyklon
two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO)
United States launch vehicles
Vanguard launch vehicle. See Vanguard
Viking (launch vehicle)
VLS
WAC Corporal
Zenit

Lunar missions, unmanned

Clementine
Hagoromo
Hiten
Luna
...Luna 1
...Luna 2
...Luna 3
...Luna 4-8
...Luna 9
...Luna 10-12, 14
...Luna 13
...Luna 15, 16, 18, 20, 23, 24
...Luna 17, 21
...Luna 19, 22
Lunar-A
Lunar Orbiter
Lunar Prospector
Lunik
Lunokhod
Moon, unmanned missions
Prospector
Ranger
SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer)
Surveyor

Manned missions

Apollo
...Apollo history
...Apollo spacecraft
......Command Module (CM)
......Service Module (SM)
......Command and Service Module (CSM)
......Lunar Module (LM)
......Launch Escape System (LES)
......Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV)
......ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Science Experiment Package)
...Apollo missions
......Apollo 7
......Apollo 8
......Apollo 9
......Apollo 10
......Apollo 11
......Apollo 12
......Apollo 13
......Apollo 14
......Apollo 15
......Apollo 16
......Apollo 17
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP)
" Bug," the
China, manned spaceflight
Gemini
...Gemini 3
...Gemini 4
...Gemini 5
...Gemini 6A
...Gemini 7
...Gemini 8
...Gemini 9A
...Gemini 10
...Gemini 11
...Gemini 12
...Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV)
Haughton-Mars Project
Ivan Ivanovich. See Korabl-Sputnik
Korabl-Sputnik
Magdeburg project
Mars, manned missions
Mercury Project
...History
...Mercury capsule
...Manned flights
......Mercury MR-3 (Mercury 7/Freedom 7)
......Mercury MR-4 (Mercury 11/Liberty Bell 7)
......Mercury MA-6 (Mercury 13/Friendship 7)
......Mercury MA-7 (Mercury 18/Aurora 7)
......Mercury MA-8 (Mercury 16/Sigma 7)
......Mercury MA-9 (Mercury 20/Faith 7)
orbital cycler
Rover, Project
Russian manned lunar programs
...L-1
...L-3
Soyuz (spacecraft)
...History
...Soyuz 1-9
...Soyuz 10 and 11
...Soyuz 12-40
...Soyuz T
...Soyuz TM
...Soyuz TMA
" V" weapons
...V-1
...V-2
...V-3
Voskhod
Vostok
...Vostok spacecraft
...Vostok rocket
...Vostok missions
......Vostok 1
......Vostok 2
......Vostok 3 and 4
......Vostok 5 and 6

Also see: Space Shuttle; Space stations\tab

Microgravity and technology experiments

Jindai. See MABES
LiPS (Living Plume Shield)
MABES (Magnetic Bearing Satellite)
MDS (Mission Demonstration Satellite)
microgravity
SFU (Space Flyer Unit)

Military satellites and use of space

Almaz
ARGOS (Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite)
ASAT (antisatellite)
Canyon
Chalet/Vortex
COMINT (communications intelligence)
Corona
Discoverer
DODGE (Department of Defense Gravity Experiment)
DSPS. See IMEWS
early warning (EW) satellites
ELINT (electronic intelligence)
EORSAT (ELINT Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite)
ferret
FOBS (Fractional Orbital Bombardment System)
FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events)
GRAB
Helios (reconnaissance satellites)
IMEWS (Integrated Missile Early Warning Satellite)
IMINT (imagery intelligence ) satellite
Jumpseat
Key Hole (KH)
LACE (Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment)
Lacrosse
Losat-X (Low Altitude Satellite Experiment)
Magnum
Mentor
Mercury-ELINT
MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System)
Mightysat
Milstar (Military Strategic and Tactical Relay)
MSX (Midcourse Space Experiment)
MTI (Multispectral Thermal Imager)
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
NATO (satellites)
NOSS (Naval Ocean Surveillance Satellite)
Okean
Oko
Orlets
Parus
Potok
Radose
Resurs
Rhyolite
RME (Relay Mirror Experiment)
Romb
Samos
SB-WASS (Wide Area Surveillance Satellite)
SDIO (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization)
SDS (Satellite Data System)
Sfera
SIGINT (signals intelligence) satellites
Skynet
Solrad (Solar Radiation program)
Squanto Terror
SSF (subsatellite ferrets)
Stacksat
Starfish
STEX (Space Technology Experiments)
surveillance satellites
Taifun
Trumpet
Tselina
USA
Vela
Vela, Advanced
Vortex. See Chalet
WRESAT (Weapons Research Establishment Satellite)
Yantar

Nanosatellites and picosatellites

ION-F (Ionospheric Observation Nanosatellite Formation)
Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer (NCT)
OPAL (Orbiting PicoSat Launcher)
Space Technology 5. See Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer

Nations in space

Britain in space
Canada in space
China in space
France in space
Germany in space
India in space
Israel in space
Japan in space
Russia in space
United States in space

Navigational satellites and programs

EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service)
Galileo satellite navigation system
GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System)
GPS (Global Positioning System)
Nadezhda
navigation satellites
Navsat (Naval Navigation Satellite). See Transit
Navstar-GPS (Navigation Satellite Time and Ranging Global Positioning System). See GPS
NIMS (Navy Ionospheric Monitoring System). See Transit
NNSS (Navy Navigational Satellite System). See Transit
Nova (satellites)
NUSAT (Northern Utah Satellite)
Timation
Transit
Tsikada

Orbital and celestial mechanics

altitude
aphelion
apoapsis
apogee
apolune
barycenter
big LEO
braking ellipses
bulge of the Earth
capture
celestial mechanics
circular velocity
circumlunar trajectory
circumplanetary space
circumterrestrial space
cislunar
Clarke belt
conic sections
Coriolis effect
deep space
direct ascent
Earth-orbit rendezvous
eccentric orbit
eccentricity
ecliptic
ellipse
elliptic ascent
ephemeris
equatorial orbit
escape energy
escape trajectory
escape velocity
escape-velocity orbit
flyby
flyby maneuver. See gravity-assist
free fall
GEO
geocentric
geospace
geostationary orbit (GSO)
geosynchronous orbit
geosynchronous/geostationary transfer orbit (GTO)
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
graveyard orbit
gravipause
gravisphere
gravity gradient
gravity gradient stabilization
gravity-assist
halo orbit
heliocentric
HEO
Hohmann orbit
hyperbola
hyperbolic orbit
hyperbolic velocity
inclination
Keplerian trajectory
Kepler' s laws
L5
Lagrangian orbit
Lagrangian point
LEO (low Earth orbit)
little LEO
local time
local vertical
lunar-orbit rendezvous (LOR)
major axis
maneuver, capture
maneuver, correction
maneuver, escape
MEO (medium Earth orbit)
Molniya-type orbit
nadir
neutral point
orbit
orbit decay
orbital curve
orbital elements
orbital energy
orbital nodes
orbital period
orbital plane
orbital velocity
parabola
parabolic orbit
parabolic velocity
parking orbit
PAW ascent
periapsis
perigee
perihelion
perilune
perturbation
polar orbit
posigrade motion
precessing orbit. See walking orbit
precession
prograde. See direct
quasistationary orbit
radius vector
retrograde orbit
revolution
semi-major axis
semi-synchronous orbit
slingshot effect. See gravity-assist
slot
stationary orbit. See geosynchronous orbit
suborbital
sun-synchronous orbit
trajectory
transfer
transfer ellipse
translunar
two-body problem
UT (Universal Time)
VHO (very high orbit)
walking orbit
zenith

Physics and astronomy

acceleration
acceleration due to gravity (g)
angular momentum
angular velocity
annihilation
antimatter
antiparticle
astronomical unit (AU)
black hole
Casimir effect
center of mass
centrifugal force
centripetal acceleration
centripetal force
conservation of momentum
corona
cosmic rays
cosmic string
deceleration
density
deuterium
Doppler effect
dynamics
electromagnetic field
electromagnetic radiation
electron
energy
energy density
EUV
event horizon
field
fission, nuclear
flux
flux density
force
fusion, nuclear
g. See acceleration due to gravity
G. See gravitational constant
gamma rays
general theory of relativity
g-force
gravitational constant (G)
gravitational energy
gravitational field
gravity
hard vacuum
heliopause
heliosphere
high-energy radiation
impulse
inertia
inertial force
inertial reference frame
infrared
interplanetary magnetic field
interplanetary space
interstellar medium
interstellar space
ion
ionization
kinetic energy
light
light-time
light-year
magnetic field
magnetic field lines
mass
mass-energy relationship
microwave radiation
momentum
Newton's law of universal gravitation
Newton's laws of motion
nuclear fission. See fission, nuclear
nuclear fusion. See fusion, nuclear
nucleus
photon
plasma
polarization
positron
potential energy
power
proton
quantum mechanics
quantum vacuum
radiation
radiation pressure
radio waves
radioactivity
recombination
relativistic effects
rest mass
sol
solar flare
solar wind
space
space-time
special theory of relativity
specific impulse
speed of light (c)
submillimeter band
surface gravity
thermodynamics
tidal force
tunneling
ultraviolet (UV)
vacuum
vector
velocity
visible light
wavelength
weight
X-rays

Planetary missions

aerogel
asteroid missions. See comet and asteroid missions
Athena Science Payload. See Mars Exploration Rovers
Beagle 2. See Mars Express
Bepi Colombo
Cassini
...Cassini orbiter
...Huygens probe
comet and asteroid missions
Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR)
CONTOUR (Comet Nucleus Tour)
CRAF (Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby)
Dawn
Deep Impact
Deep Space 1 (DS1)
Deep Space 2 (DS2). See Mars Microbe Mission
Europa Lander
Europa Orbiter
Europa Subsurface mission
Fobos
Galileo
...Descent probe
...Extended Mission
Genesis
Giotto
Grand Tour
Huygens probe. See Cassini
ICE (International Cometary Explorer)
IMP (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform)
JMEX (Jupiter Magnetospheric Explorer)
Magellan
Mariner
...Mariner 1
...Mariner 2
...Mariner 3
...Mariner 4
...Mariner 5
...Mariner 6
...Mariner 7
...Mariner H (8)
...Mariner 9
...Mariner 10
Mars
...Mars 1
...Mars 2
...Mars 3
...Mars 4
...Mars 5
...Mars 6
...Mars 7
Mars 96
Mars 1969 A/B
Mars 2005. See Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars 2007
Mars Climate Observer
Mars Exploration Rovers
Mars Express
...Beagle 2
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)
Mars Microprobe Mission. See Mars Polar Lander
Mars Observer
Mars Odyssey, 2001
Mars Pathfinder (MPF)
Mars Polar Lander
...Mars Microprobe Mission
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars Scout
Mars Surveyor ' 98
Mars, unmanned spacecraft
Marsnik
MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging)
MUSES-C
NEAP (Near-Earth Asteroid Prospector)
NEAR-Shoemaker (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous)
Neptune Orbiter
NetLander
Nozomi
PFS (Particles and Fields Subsatellite)
Phobos. See Fobos
Pluto/Kuiper Belt Mission
Rosetta
Sagan Memorial Station
Sakigake
Saturn Ring Observer
Sojourner. See Mars Pathfinder
Stardust
Suisei
Titan Explorer
Vega 1 and 2
Venera
...Venera 1
...Venera 2
...Venera 3
...Venera 4
...Venera 5 and 6
...Venera 7
...Venera 8
...Venera 9 and 10
...Venera 11 and 12
...Venera 13 and 14
...Venera 15 and 16
Venus Surface Sample Return
Venus, unmanned exploration
Viking 1 and 2
Voyager
...Voyager 1
...Voyager 2
...Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

Propellants

additive
aluminum, powdered
ammonium perchlorate
anergolic propellant
anhydrous
aniline (C6H5NH2)
auto-igniting propellant
auto-ignition temperature
bipropellant
black powder
bonded grain
cast propellant
catalyst
chemical fuel
colloidal propellant
composite propellant
cryogenic propellant
dual thrust
elasticizer
gaseous propellant
gelled propellants
grain
HAN (NH2OH+NO3)
hydrazine (N2H4)
hydrogen (H)
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
hypergolic fuel
ideal burning
inhibitor
initiator
IRFNA (inhibited red fuming nitric acid). See nitric acid
kerosine
LH2. See liquid hydrogen
liquid hydrogen (H2)
liquid oxygen (O2)
liquid propellant
LOX. See liquid oxygen
monopropellant
multipropellant
nitric acid (HNO3)
nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4)
nuclear fuel
oxidizer
oxidizer-to-fuel ratio
propellant
propellant storage
propellant stratification
propellant utilization
reactant
RFNA (red fuming nitric acid). See nitric acid
RP-1 (rocket propellant 1)
solid propellant
trapped propellant
UDMH ((CH3)2NHH2)

Protection and shielding for spacecraft

Pegasus (spacecraft)
Whipple shield

Rentry physics and terminology

ablation
air breakup
ARTV (Advanced Reentry Test Vehicle)
blackout
Boost Glide Reentry Program (BGRV)
cross range
decay. See orbit decay
de-orbit burn
drogue
entry. See reentry
heat shield. See reentry thermal protection
ionized plasma sheath
overshoot boundary
PAET (Planetary Atmospheric Entry Test)
parabolic reentry
plasma sheath
reentry
Reentry (test program)
reentry corridor
Reentry Flight Demonstrator (RFD)
reentry thermal protection
reentry vehicle
reentry window
Ryusei
sweat cooling
undershoot boundary

Rocket engineers and space scientists

Abbott, Ira Herbert (1906- )
Ames, Milton B., Jr. (1913- )
Bernal, J(ames) D(esmond) (1901-1971)
Bickerton, Alexander William (1842-1929)
Biringuccio, Vannoccio (1480-1537)
Blagonravov, Anatoli A. (1895-1975)
Bond, Alan (1944- )
Bossart, Karel J. (1904-1975)
Buckley, Edmond C. (1904-1977)
Bull, Gerald Vincent (1928-1990)
Chelomei, Vladimir Nikolaevich (1914-1984)
Clauser, Francis H. (1913- )
Cleator, P(hilip) E(llaby) (1908-1994)
Colombo, Giuseppe ("Bepi") (1920-1984)
Congreve, William (1772-1828)
Crocco, Gaetano Arturo (1877-1968)
Damblanc, Louis (1889-1969)
De Laval, Gustav (1845-1913)
Debus, Kurt H. (1908-1983)
DeFrance, Smith J. (1896-1985)
Dornberger, Walter (1895-1980)
Draper, Charles Stark (1901-1987)
Dryden, Hugh Latimer (1898-1965)
Dunn, Louis G. (1908-1979)
Durant, Frederick Clark III (1916- )
Dyson, Freeman John (1923- )
Ehricke, Krafft Arnold (1917-1984)
Esnault-Pelterie, Robert A. C. (1881-1957)
Faget, Maxime A. (1921- )
Feoktistov, Konstantin Petrovich (1926- )
Finger, Harold B. (1924- )
Forward, Robert L(ull) (1932- )
Ganswindt, Hermann (1856-1934)
Glushko, Valentin Petrovitch (1908-1989)
Goddard, Robert Hutchins (1882-1945)
Haas, Conrad (c.1509-1579)
Hale, William (1797-1870)
Hohmann, Walter (1880-1945)
Hunsaker, Jerome C. (1886-1984)
Johnson, Clarence L. ("Kelly") (1910-1990)
Kaplan, Joseph (1902-1991)
Keldysh, Msitslav Vsevolodovich (1911-1978)
Kelly, Thomas J. (1930-2002)
Kibalchich, Nikolai Ivanovitch (1854-1881)
Korolev, Sergei Pavlovich (1907-1966)
Kurchatov, Igor (1902-1960)
Kurzweg, Hermann H. (1908- )
Le Prieur, Yves Paul Gaston (1885-1963)
Lundin, Bruce T. (1919- )
Malina, Frank J. (1912-1981)
Maul, Alfred (1864-1941)
Mishin, Vassily (1917- )
Murray, Bruce C. (1932- )
Newell, Homer E. (1915-1983)
Noordung, Herman (1892-1929)
Oberth, Hermann Julius (1894-1989)
O'Neill, Gerard Kitchen (1927-1992)
Ordway, Frederick Ira (1927- )
Paulet, Pedro A.
Petrov, Boris N. (1913-1980)
Pierce, John R. (1910-2002)
Ramo, Simon (1913- )
Rauschenbach, Boris Viktovich (1915-2001)
Rees, Eberhard F. M. (1908- )
Riedel, Klaus (1901-1944)
Rosen, Milton W. (1915- )
Ross, H (Harry) E.
Rothrock, Addison M. (1903-1971)
Rudolph, Arthur L. (1906-1996)
Rynin, Nikolai Alexsevitch (1877-1942)
Sagan, Carl Edward (1934-1996)
Sagdeyev, Roald Z. (1932- )
Sander, Friedrich Wilhelm
S\'e4nger, Eugen (1905-1964)
Sarabhai, Vikram Ambalal (1919-1971)
Schmidlap, Johan (16th century)
Schmiedl, Friedrich (1902-1994)
Shesta, John
Silverstein, Abe (1908-2001)
Singer, Samuel Frederick (1924- )
Stack, John (1906-1972)
Stewart, Homer J. (1915- )
Stuhlinger, Ernst (1913- )
Syromiatnikov, Vladimir S. (1934- )
Thiel, Walter
Tikhonravov, Mikhail K. (1901-1974)
Tiling, Reinhold
Truax, Robert C.
Tsander, Fridrikh Arturovitch (1887-1933)
Tsien, Hsue-Shen (1909- )
Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovitch (1857-1935)
Tupolev, Andrei (1888-1972)
Ulinski, Franz Abdon (1890-1974)
Valier, Max (1893-1930)
Van Allen, James Alfred (1914- )
Von Braun, Wernher Magnus Maximilian (1912-1977)
Von Hoefft, Franz (1882-1954)
Von K\'e1rm\'e1n, Theodore (1881-1963)
Von Opel, Fritz (1899-1971)
Von Pirquet, Guido (1880-1966)
Walter, Hellmuth
Wexler, Harry (1911-1962)
Whipple, Fred L. (1906- )
Whittle, Frank (1907-1996)
Winkler, Johannes (1887-1947)
Wyld, James Hart (1913-1953)
Yangel, Mikhail K. (1911-1971)

Rocket planes

BI-1 (Bereznyak-Isayev 1)
Douglas Skyrocket
Malyutka
MX-324
RP-318
X-1
X-2
X-15

Rocket science and technology

afterburning
augmentor
average thrust
bleed-cycle operation
blowdown
blowoff
boat-tail
boiloff
bootstrap
burn
burn rate
burn time
burnout
burnout plug
burnout velocity
burnout weight
canted nozzle
chamber pressure
characteristic length
characteristic velocity
chemical rocket
chuffing
combustion
combustion chamber
combustion efficiency
combustion, incomplete
combustion instability
combustion limit
combustion oscillation
De Laval nozzle
dry weight
effective exhaust velocity
environmental engine
exhaust nozzle
exhaust stream
exhaust velocity
expansion ratio
F-1
Fastrac Engine
firing chamber. See combustion chamber
flashback
gas generator
gaseous propellant rocket engine
H-1 (American rocket engine)
high mass fraction
hybrid motor
hydrid propellant rocket engine
ideal rocket
ignition
ignition lag
impulse, total
impulse-weight ratio
injector
J-2 (American rocket engine)
leveled thrust
limit load
limit pressure
liquid-propellant rocket engine
liquid-air cycle engine
liquid-fueled rocket
load factor
mass ratio
Max Q
motor
motor chamber
multistage ignition
multistage rocket
nozzle
nozzle area ratio
nozzle efficiency
nozzle exit angle
oxygen-hydrocarbon engine
parallel operation of engines
payload ratio
pogo effect
pressure feed system
pressure limit
prevalve
progressive burning
propellant-mass ratio
purge
reaction engine
reaction mass
reaction nozzle
regenerative cooling
regressive burning
remaining mass
rocket
rocket equation
rocket principle
rocket propulsion
rumble
screaming
sloshing
solid-fueled rockets
solid-propellant rocket motor
staging
stay time
step principle
step rocket
takeoff mass
thermal load
throat
throatable
thrust
thrust chamber
thrust decay
thrust equalizer
thrust generator
thrust misalignment
thrust-to-Earth-weight ratio
total impulse
turbopump
ullage
unrestricted burn
weight flow rate
working pressure

Rocket types

aft-firing thrusters
apogee kick motor
attitude jets
booster
braking rocket
cluster
cold gas attitude control system. See gaseous-propellant rocket engine
dawn rocket
perigee kick motor
separation rocket
posigrade rocket
retro-rocket
separation rocket
sustainer engine
thruster
ullage rocket
vernier engine

Science fiction and spaceflight

Around the Moon. See From the Earth to the Moon
Atterley, Joseph
Bonestell, Chesley (1888-1987)
Caidin, Martin (1926-1997)
Cavendish, Margaret (1623-1673)
Clarke, Arthur C. (1917- )
Collier' s Space Program
Columbiad
Conquest of Space
Cromie, Robert (1856-1907)
Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien de (1619-1655)
Defoe, Daniel (1660-1731)
Destination Moon
Disney, Walt (1901-1966)
Eyraud, Achille (19th century)
From the Earth to the Moon
Godwin, Francis (1562-1633)
Greg, Percy (1836-1889)
Griffith, George (1857-1906)
Hale, Edward Everett (1822-1909)
Ley, Willy (1906-1969)
Lucian of Samosata (c. A.D. 120-180)
McDermot, Mutagh (eighteenth century)
Poe, Edgar Allan (1809-1849)
Serviss, Garrett (Putnam) (1851-1929)
Tucker, George (1775-1861)
Verne, Jules (1828-1905)
Wilkins, John (1614-1672)
Woman in the Moon

Societies

American Astronautical Society (AAS)
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
American Rocket Society. See American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Australian Space Research Institute
British Interplanetary Society (BIS)
Canadian Space Society (CSS)
Experimental Rocket Propulsion Society (ERPS)
German Rocket Society. See Verein f\'fcr Raumschiffahrt
GIRD (Gruppa Isutcheniya Reaktivnovo Dvisheniya)
International Astronautical Federation (IAF)
National Association of Rocketry (NAR)
National Rocket Club. See National Space Club
National Space Club (NSC)
National Space Institute (NSI)
National Space Society (NSS)
Planetary Society, The
Reaction Research Society (RRS)
SEDS (Students for the Exploration and Development of Space)
Society for Space Travel. See Verein f\'fcr Raumschiffahrt
Space Foundation
Space Frontier Foundation
Space Studies Institute (SSI)
Spacecause
Spaceguard Foundation
Spacepac
United Space Alliance
USRA (Universities Space Research Association )
Verein fur Raumschiffahrt

Solar probes and satellites

ASCE (Advanced Spectroscopic and Coronographic Experiment)
Coronas
Helios (solar probes)
HESSI (High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager). See RHESSI
Hinotori
International Solar Polar Mission. See Ulysses
Microscale Coronal Features probe
OSO (Orbiting Solar Observatory)
RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager)
SDO (Solar Dynamics Obervatory)
Sentinels
Shinsei
SME (Solar Mesosphere Explorer)
SMM (Solar Maximum Mission)
SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory)
Solar-B
Solar Polar Imager
Solar Probe
SOLO (Solar Orbiter)
Solwind
Spartan 201
STEREO (Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory)
Tournesol
TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer)
Ulysses
Yohkoh

Space agencies and other space-related government organizations


Advanced Concepts Program (ACO)
Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP)
Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB)
Air Force Space Command (AFSPC)
ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiano)
Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO)
British National Space Center (BNSC)
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)
CIRA (Centro Italiano Richerche Aerospaziali)
CNES (Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales)
COSPAR (Committee on Space Research)
DARA (Deutsche Agentur fur Raumfahrtangelegenheiten)
DFVLR. See DLR
DLR (Deutschen Zentrum f\'fcr Luft und Raumfahrt)
ELDO (European Launcher Development Organization)
ESA (European Space Agency)
ESOC (European Space Operations Center)
ESRIN (European Space Research Institute)
ESRO (European Space Research Organization)
ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration)
ESTEC (European Space Research and Technology Centre)
French Space Agency. See CNES
Glavcosmos
IKI. See Russian Space Research Institute
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacias)
INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial)
International Space Science Institute
NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics)
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC)
NASDA (National Space Development Agency)
National Aeronautics and Space Council
National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC)
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
ONERA (Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches A\'e9rospatiale)
Russian Space Agency (RKA)
Russian Space Research Institute (IKI)
space agencies
Space Studies Board

Space cannons and guns

HARP (High Altitude Research Project)
mass driver
Newton' s orbital cannon
Paris gun
SHARP (Super High Altitude Research Project)
space cannon
space gun. See space cannon
Valier-Oberth Moon gun

Space medicine, life support, animals in space

aeroembolism
aerospace medicine
aging
agravic
algae
animals in space
anti-g suit
artificial gravity
Baker
bioastronautics
biodynamics
bioinstrumentation
Bion
biopak
biosatellite
Biosatellite
biosensor
biotelemetry
bone demineralization in space
break-off phenomenon
cardiovascular deconditioning
centrifuge
closed ecological system
contamination
decompression sickness
dysbarism
ecological system
Gravitational Biology Facility
grayout
g-suit. See anti-g suit
Ham
Henry, James Paget (1914-1996)
human factors
Human Research Facility (HRF)
hypoxia
Johnsville Centrifuge
Laika
LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility)
life support
light flash phenomenon
lithium hydroxide
loading
Lovelace, William Randolph, II (1883-1968)
negative g
OFO (Orbiting Frog Otolith)
oxygen, regenerative
photosynthetic gas exchanger
physiological acceleration
physiological factors
planetary protection test
positive g
prone g
propulsion
radiation protection in space
rocket sled
space equivalence
space medicine
space motion sickness (SMS)
space survival
spacesuit
...Pre-Apollo wardrobe
...Suited for the Moon
...Shuttle and ISS garb
...Russian spacesuits
stapp
Stapp, John Paul (1910-1999)
stressed limits
Strughold, Hubertus (1898-1987)
supine g
suspended animation
transverse acceleration

Space mission terminology

abort
alternate mission
astrodynamics
boost
boost phase
CAPCOM
coasting flight
cruise phase
cutoff
descent path
direct flight
docking
downrange
flight profile
ground-track
hard landing
housekeeping
injection
midcourse
mission control center
mission profile
picket ship
powered landing
recovery
rendezvous
separation
shutdown. See cutoff
soft landing
touchdown

Space planes and lifting bodies

ASSET (Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests)
Bantam-X
boost glider
Delta Clipper
Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soaring Vehicle)
Hermes
HOPE (H-2 Orbital Plane)
HOTOL (Horizontal Takeoff and Landing vehicle)
lifting body
M-2 (American lifting body)
MUSTARD (Multi-Unit Space Transport and Recovery Device)
National Aerospace Plane (NASP). See X-30
PRIME (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry)
Skylon
space plane
START (Spacecraft Technology and Advanced Reentry Test)
VentureStar. See X-33
X-20. See Dyna-Soar
X-23. See PRIME
X-24
X-33
X-37A/X-40
X-38
X-43A

Space Shuttle

Atlantis
Challenger
Columbia
Discovery
Endeavour
Enterprise
Eureca (European Retrievable Carrier)
Get-Away Special
grapple
Gulfstream
Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF)
Remote Manipulator System (RMS)
Space Shuttle
...History
...External Tank (ET)
...Orbiter
...Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs)
...Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)
Space Transportation System (STS)
Spacehab
Spacelab
SPAS (Space Shuttle Pallet Satellite)

Space stations

ACRV (Assured Crew Return Vehicle)
AERCam (Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera)
Big Gemini
Canadarm. See Remote Manipulator System
Inspector
International Space Station (ISS)
...International contributions
...Prelude to ISS: the Shuttle-Mir program
...The ISS takes shape
...Major ISS components and servicing equipment)
......Zarya (" Dawn" ) Control Module
......Unity Connecting Module
......Zvezda Service Module
......Truss Structure
......Nodes
......Destiny Laboratory Module
......Columbus Laboratory
......Kibo Laboratory
......Russian Research Modules
......Centrifuge Accommodation Module
......Science Power Platform
......Canadian Mobile Servicing System. See Remote Manipulator System
......Multi-Purpose Logistics Module
......Automated Transfer Vehicle
Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL)
Mir
...Kvant (1987)
...Kvant 2 (1989)
...Kristall (1990)
...Spektr (1995)
...Priroda (1996)
MORL (Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory)
Progress
Salyut
...History
...Salyut 1
...Salyut 2
...DOS 3
...Salyut 3
...Salyut 4
...Salyut 5
...Salyut 6
...Salyut 7
Skylab
...Skylab 1
...Skylab 2
...Skylab 3
...Skylab 4
...Epilogue: Skylab' s return
space station

Space tethers and elevators

PMG (Plasma Motor Generator)
SEDS (Small Expendable-tether Deployer System)
space elevator
space tether
TiPS (Tether Physics and Survivability Satellite)
TSS (Tethered Satellite System)

Spacecraft and launch vehicle components

adapter skirt
airlock
bus
capsule
companion body
composite
ejection capsule
escape tower
fairing
fall-away section
fuselage
interstage
kick stage
longitudinal axis
main stage
meteor deflection screen. See Whipple shield
micrometeoroid protection
module
nosecone
parallel staging
payload
pressurized cabin
propulsion system
scan platform
spacecraft system
stage
strap-on booster
zero stage

Spacecraft communications and tracking

acquisition
Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex
Deep Space Communications Complex (DSCC)
Deep Space Network (DSN)
Deep Space Station (DSS)
Doppler radar
Doppler tracking
Earth Received Time (ERT)
Goldstone Tracking Facility
Jodrell Bank
low-gain antenna (LGA)
Minitrack
non-coherent
occultation
ODERACS (Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere)
OICETS (Optical Inter-orbit Communication Engineering Test Satellite)
omnidirectional antenna
ranging
round-trip light time (RLT)
solar conjunction
STARSHINE (Student Tracked Atmospheric Research Satellite for Heuristic International Networking Equipment)
SURFSAT (Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Satellite)
tracking
True of Date (TOD)
Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station (VILSPA)

Spacecraft navigation and control

attitude
attitude control
axis
celestial guidance
chaotic control
course correction
delta V
gimbal
guidance
guidance, midcourse
guidance system
gyroscope
inertial guidance
inertial platform
jetavator
pitch
reaction control system (RCS)
retrofire
roll
rotation
station-keeping
terminal guidance
thrust vector control
translation
translational thrust
vector control
vector thrust
yaw

Spacecraft power supply

fuel cell
photovoltaic cell
radioisotope heater unit (RHU)
radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG)
solar array
solar cell
SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power)
SNAPSHOT
SP-100

Spacecraft series and programs

AEM (Applications Explorer Mission)
Aryabhata
Asterix
Astro-
ATS (Applications Technology Satellite)
Castor and Pollux
Cosmos (spacecraft)
Discovery Program
Dong Fang Hong (DFH)
Earth Probes
Efir
ESSP (Earth System Science Pathfinder)
Exos-
Exploration of Neighboring Planetary Systems (ExNPS)
Explorer
Foton
Gurwin
IEOS (International Earth Observing System)
Intercosmos
Japanese satellite names
Kwangmyongsong
MIDEX (Medium-class Explorer)
MiniSat
Mission of Opportunity (MO)
MUSES- (Mu Space Engineering Satellites)
Nauka
New Millennium Program (NMP)
Ofeq
Origins program
Pioneer
...Early Pioneers: a failed lunar program
...Pioneer 5-9: success further afield
...Pioneer 10 and 11: Jupiter and beyond
...Pioneer Venus
Planet-
Polyot
Rohini
San Marco (satellites)
SMART (Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology)
SMEX (Small Explorer)
SMEX lite
Solar-
Solar Connections Initiative
Solar Terrestrial Probes
Sputnik (satellites)
...Sputnik 1
...Sputnik 2
...Sputnik 3
SROSS (Stretched Rohini Satellite Series)
SS (Scientific Satellite)
SSS (Small Scientific Satellite)
STEDI (Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative)
STRV (Space Technology Research Vehicle)
UNEX (University-class Explorer)
UoSAT
Vanguard
Venera
Zond
...Zond 4
...Zond 5
...Zond 6
...Zond 7 and 8

Spacecraft types

active satellite
cryobot
hydrobot
microsat
minisat
nanosat
nuclear detection satellites
orbiter
paddlewheel satellite
passive satellite
penetration probe
picosat
platform
polar platform
sample-return
satellite
satellite constellation
satellites mass categories
space probe
subsatellite
terrestrial satellite
weather satellites

Stabilization of spacecraft

dual spin
Earth-stabilized satellites
inertia wheel
inertial stabilization
Miranda
reaction wheel
spin stabilization
stabilization of satellites
three-axis stabilization

Testing of rockets and spacecraft

boilerplate
captive test
cold-flow test
Demosat (Demonstration Satellite)
development vehicle
ETS (Engineering Test Satellite)
flight acceptance test
flight readiness firing
flight simulator
flight test
hard mockup
hold-down test
holding fixture
horizontal preflight checkout
hot test
hypervelocity gun
Kiku. See ETS
Myojo
Osumi
Prospero
SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes)
space simulator
static firing
static testing
Tansei

Weather satellites

DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program)
Elektro. See GOMS
Eole
Eumetsat (European Meteorological Satellite Organization)
GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Project)
GMS (Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite)
GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite)
GOMS (Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite)
Himawari. See GMS
ITOS (Improved TIROS Operational System)
meteorological satellite. See weather satellite
Meteor
Meteosat
MetOp (Meteorological Operational) satellites
Nimbus
SMS (Synchronous Meteorological Satellite)
TIROS (Television Infrared Observation System)
TOS (TIROS Operational System)





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