Puzzling Global Reports of Strange Aerial Craft (SAC):
A Comprehensive Technical Assessment and a Testable Theory
Early Work and the Derivation of an Astronautical Theory
T. R. Dutton
© March 2001
Proponents of SETI and OSETI
have for many years acknowledged that some of the possessors of their much-sought-for
extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) might have discovered this planet a
long time ago and sent out probes (see extraterrestrial
probes) to investigate. It is noteworthy that funded optical searches
for such probes in the vicinity of the Earth-Moon Lagrangian
points were carried out during the years 1979 and 1981-82, without success.
In strange contrast, there has been a sustained unwillingness to examine
phenomenological evidence that might suggest that an Earth-monitoring activity
was set up by ETI in the past, and is still operating. This paper, which
presents such evidence for consideration, is the result of over three decades
of private research by a professional aerospace engineer.
The work took the form of an extended technical feasibility study, which
began, in 1967, with a detailed examination of puzzling local reports of
strange aerial craft (SAC). The conclusion drawn from the initial studies
was that the reported objects had been real, but had displayed characteristics
that placed them beyond human accomplishment. As there was much evidence
to suggest that they had been engaged in low-level monitoring operations,
and that they had originated from the sky and returned to it, the study
became global in scope in an effort to find evidence of a causative astronautical
activity. This section of the study led, eventually, to the recognition
of a programmed strategy of engagement with the Earth, which had apparently
overlain all the reported SAC activities within the atmosphere. From further
development and rationalization of this strategy, an empirical theory evolved.
This is now referred to as the Astronautical Theory for SAC Encounters and
details of its derivation are presented here for consideration, together
with information about all the essential preceding steps, beginning with
the early "hardware" studies. In addition, papers describing further exploratory
development by the author are listed in the Bibliography.
It is acknowledged that the work presented here is exploratory and unfinished.
The current theory is provisional, but tests of it with new data appear
to be overwhelmingly substantiating, despite those reservations. The Astronautical
Theory is navigational in essence. It defines long-established approach
and departure paths in space and predicts the most likely delivery and retrieval
times for fully-automated probes within the atmosphere, at any given targeted
location. These predictions have been used effectively by serious sky-watching
groups and by an Irish astronomer who has set up a specialized OSETI observatory
to gather recorded observational data that may serve to test the Theory.
It is hoped that this paper will stimulate scientific discussion and suggest
hitherto unconsidered ways of detecting and recording the activities of
automated Earth-monitoring probes, which appear to be operating from sources
within and in the vicinity of the solar system. Possible locations for those
sources (bases) may also be inferred from the evidence presented.
2. Early SAC studies
3. Areas affected within the UK
2.2 Craft characteristics
3.1 Geographical distribution, 1967
4. The fireballs study
3.2 Topographical study, 1967
3.3 Geographical distribution, 1971
5. The global SAC study
5.1 Initial data gathering
6. The local timings exercise
5.2 Initial processing of global data
5.3 The "favored delivery track" concept
5.4 The search for sidereal connections
5.5 The search for geographical evidence of "super-orbiting"
5.6 Exercise to explore the fixed star-linked track orientation
7. The fully computerized model
6.2 Development of local timings graphs
7.1 Local timings graphs
8. Discussion of features of the theory
7.2 Numerical computer processing
8.1 Review of the basic development process
8.2 Exploration of the sidereal-orientation puzzle
8.3 Terminator-linked tracks
Funded optical scans of the Lagrangian points within the Earth-Moon system
were made, in 1979 and 1981-82, by professional astronomers searching (in
obvious solar system locations) for the automated probes of ETI. Inconsistent
with such expectations has been the neglect of phenomenological evidence
suggesting that an automated Earth-monitoring system may be in operation.
It is hoped that the research described here will change that still-prevailing
situation. This paper describes serious scientific work carried out over
a period of more than three decades to assess reports of strange aerial
craft (SAC) for which mundane explanations could not be found. The work
took the form of an extended technical feasibility study, devoid of any
initial assumptions, which was begun thirty-four years ago and then developed
as more information became available.
When, during 1967, sightings of strange aerial craft began to be reported
in increasing numbers from the Manchester area of North West England, the
author, then a young aeronautical engineer, employed and living in that
area, became intrigued. Having spent the opening years of his career engaged
in feasibility studies of advanced launcher and spacecraft concepts, those
reports of SAC provided an incentive to reapply his acquired analytical
expertise. Necessarily, the work had to be done in spare time and without
the aid of a PC or, even, a hand calculator. In fact, the early material
to be presented here was processed and derived using only graph paper, logarithmic
tables, drawing instruments, a slide rule, local maps, and a good atlas.
Initially, information had to be obtained from eye-witnesses, newspaper
reports, magazines and books; and those cases selected as being worthy of
study were listed in penciled tables, prior to processing. At the outset,
penciled diagrams were drawn to depict the objects described by eye-witnesses,
and colored crayons were used to portray the co lour of those objects and
any lights they were said to have displayed. These humble beginnings, from
which so much developed, have presented problems. Early data tables were
often hurriedly scribbled out. Those old records have paled with age and
have proved difficult and, sometimes, impossible to reproduce satisfactorily.
Even so, reproduction of some of the early ("archive") material has been
thought to be necessary to authenticate this long-overdue paper.
Work began with technical feasibility studies of the objects (SAC) themselves.
These exercises very quickly led to the conclusion that the technology being
featured was far beyond any known form of human technology. Even so, some
of the objects had exhibited evidence of being real and solid, despite their
phenomenal performance capabilities, which had seemed, at times, to defy
Newtonian laws. Very soon it had to be provisionally accepted that the artificial
objects reported from North West England and the Midlands had been real,
but had not been humanly-produced. In addition, further investigation had
indicated that, overall, the operations had had all the characteristics
of a hellgrammite aerial surveillance activity. Sometimes the objects had
descended from the sky and had been seen to return to it. It therefore seemed
logical to look for their sources in space; i.e., for extraterrestrial origins.
A collection of historical global data was then begun, to facilitate exploration
of global SAC reports patterns. The extraction of SAC evidence from two
published catalogues of the strangest UFO reports greatly expedited the
next step, which was to look for meaningful geographical distributions possibly
indicative of organized activity from space. After much vain effort had
been applied to that geographical-patterning idea, linking of reported SAC
events with the sidereal times of those events was found to produce meaningful
patterning of groups of events relative to the stars. From these simple
observations, a model of a programmed astronautical activity evolved and,
eventually, became the testable theory which is now known as the Astronautical
Theory for SAC Encounters. The step-by-step evolutionary process that
led to the formulation of that empirical theory will now be described.
2. Early SAC Studies
A sheet of sketches, extracted from the collection of such sheets, is presented
as Fig. 1 (to come). As mentioned earlier, these were crayoned representations
of artificial objects described by eye-witnesses – and attempts were
made to show changes of appearance with different modes of operation. Sometimes,
entire craft seemed to have been glowing and co lour changes had been observed
to occur between the hovering and steady level-flight modes. The structure
of such craft had seemed to have been in a state of electrical excitation,
with the co lour of the craft apparently having been dependent on its propulsive-energy
state. Orange and red luminosity were commonly associated with hovering
or low-speed maneuvering and the frequency of the emanation had seemed,
at times, to increase with increased speed, sometimes progressing through
the remaining colors of the visible spectrum. Another feature frequently
described was a collection of colored lights, often said to have been flashing
in different sequences, or projecting beams outwards and downwards.
Geometrically, the craft seen at close quarters were generally bodies of
revolution about a vertical axis, usually seen at night. They had seemed
to have been operating in low-level surveillance mode, just above the treetops
and, therefore, in radar ground-clutter. Since the sometimes-observed mode
of departure had been described as a vertical climb with phenomenal acceleration,
this again seemed to indicate that the objects would not have been detected
by the radar scanners of that time.
2.2 Craft characteristics
Following a detailed study and assessment of some 30 SAC reports (the number
of which had been supplemented by those extracted from Ref. 1), the following
characteristics of vertical-axis craft were listed:
(a) They produced very little or no noise;
Much of this evidence suggested that the craft had been propelled by some
kind of electrodynamic propulsion system, which seemed not to be related
to the external configuration of the craft. The same principles had seemed
to apply to them all, even to spheres, and to involve electrical excitation
of all visible components. There were indications that acceleration in any
direction might have been related to increased excitation of the leading
part of the structure. There were, also aerodynamic clues, which had demonstrated
the solidity of the witnessed craft on several occasions – and a freefall
experiment carried out with a model seemed to confirm this. That experiment
is described in Appendix 1 (to come).
(b) When hovering near the ground, they had created only localized disturbances
directly beneath them;
(c) Some form of self-glow was often evident;
(d) Rotation of all or part of the craft was often witnessed when in hovering
(e) Radio and TV receptions were sometimes disturbed by them.
The geometrical characteristics of the vertical axis craft were compared
and, bearing in mind that the propulsion system had not seemed to have determined
their shapes, they were found to be divided into several distinctly different
kinds. These are shown by archive Fig. 2 (to come). Beginning, at the top,
with the spheres (a small example of which had been reported as having spun
rapidly about its vertical axis), then moving to the right-hand side of
the diagram, a progression of shapes, through ovoid to hat, is drawn. On
the left-hand side, the flattening of the sphere to produce discus shapes
is represented. These latter shapes seemed to be configurations designed
for relatively low-drag, edge-on, flight through the atmosphere and could
have been used for surveying large areas. In contrast, the former group
of objects seemed to be suited to low-level surveying of particular localities
and had probably been released from unseen larger craft, hovering in the
atmosphere quite close by. Generally, they seemed only to be suited to vertical
descent and ascent. At the bottom of Fig. 2, the genre shown on the right-hand
side of the diagram has been linked to the disc/dome types, which were generally
larger. However, the relatively clean "edge-on" aerodynamics if
the disc/domes also related them to the discus types. It was conceivable
that such craft were capable of surveying wider areas without having to
have a carrier craft in the immediate vicinity of their activities. Indeed,
they may very well have been used as carrier craft for smaller objects on
It is important to stress that all of these
craft of the 1960s had seemed to be fully automated and unoccupied.
Exceptionally, the extremely controversial craft allegedly photographed
by the Californian George Adamski, during 1952 (Ref. 2) was added to this
early diagram for two reasons: firstly, two independent witnesses had reported
similar bell-shaped craft, apparently in free fall, on separate occasions;
and, secondly, another engineer, Leonard Cramp (Ref. 3), had found, by graphical
analysis, that a blurred photograph taken by two young schoolboys in February
1954 had been of a craft having exactly the same geometry as the Adamski
craft. In fact, the Cramp analysis was used to create the model for the
free-fall model tests described in Appendix 1 (to come). The Fig. 2 diagram
shows that there was a possible relationship between the Adamski craft and
the disc/domes. In fact, the author's own careful study of the Adamski photographs
suggested that the craft could have been of a variable-geometry variety,
designed to carry occupants, and with the ability to retract the cylindrical
"conning tower" into the ball-like flange. In that configuration,
interior cabin height would have been only about 4 feet (1.3 m), but even
human-sized occupants could have reclined on low couches in such a cabin.
The craft would then have had the external appearance of a disc/dome configuration.
Another practical possibility, suggested by features of the underside, was
that the bell-like flange could have been moved downwards, relative to the
cylindrical center-body, to enable the projecting three hemispheres to act
as supports for a flat-surface landing of the craft.
Finally, it has to be added that it had seemed very probable that all the
craft analyzed had been carried into the atmosphere by larger atmospheric
craft (as had been claimed by the apparently fanciful Adamski). It seemed
inconceivable that they had had the ability to reach the Earth's surface
directly from space, but there seemed to be no reasonable cause for doubting
the reality of their existence. Examination of the areas visited during
the 1967 outbreak of reports in Britain and, again, in 1971, further reinforced
that conclusion, as will now be demonstrated.
3. Areas affected within the U.K.
3.1 Geographical distribution, 1967
The significant SAC events of 1967 were plotted on a large scale map of
Britain, virtually as they occurred, and the development of the geographical
distribution pattern was watched with interest. For some reason, the activity
seemed to be concentrated in South Lancashire, South Cheshire, and North
Staffordshire. The publication of Ref. 1 was a great asset and expanded
the list of significant events quite substantially. It was realized that
the author's own location in the North West, and the fact that Ref. 1 dealt
with Staffordshire events, might have biased the selection very significantly,
but attempts to obtain reports from other parts of the country had produced
only a small number from scattered locations in Southern England. The result
of this exercise is shown by Fig. 3, which is presented as it was drawn
A narrow band, only 35 miles (56 km) wide and orientated roughly magnetic
North-South was found to have enveloped all the recorded significant sightings
between the Lake District and south of Birmingham. The scattered events
in southern England could be similarly enclosed within a band some 70 miles
(112 km) wide, orientated at right-angles to the North-South band. (By an
interesting fluke, the center lines of these bands intersected in the vicinity
of Stonehenge, Wiltshire. This observation focused attention on possible
links with ancient sites which caused them to be regarded in the next exercise
to be described.)
It was realized that the North-South band of events had enclosed the route
of the M6 motorway, which had been only partially opened in 1967. New flyovers
and feeder roads had been still under construction. The then-usable motorway
ran between Preston in the North and Stafford at its southern end, and these
limits seemed to correspond to the limits of the concentrated SAC activity.
This was another meaningful indication that systematic aerial surveillance
had been carried out.
3.2 Topographical study, 1967
The interesting result obtained from the distribution exercise led into
another study. Judging from the attention that had been apparently given
to the areas of great topographical change surrounding the M6 motorway,
it seemed that a topographical study of each of the affected areas might
be revealing. Using large scale OS and local maps, a search was made for
high-profile human developments that might have attracted attention from
high altitude. Each location in which a SAC had been seen at close quarters
was scrutinized to discover whether any such features existed within 1 mile
(1.6 km) radius of the reported event. As an afterthought, ancient and historical
sites were included in the list of significant features when it was remembered
that Stonehenge had incidentally featured in the previous study. The features
which eventually proved to dominate the exercise were, in ascending order
of importance: transmitting masts, military bases, reservoirs, power stations,
industrial sites, transport systems (major roads, railways, airports and
canals), and ancient/historical sites. The results are shown by another
diagram from the archives, Fig. 4.
The predominance of old sites of human occupation was totally unexpected,
but, as this diagram shows, 77% of all the significant cases had occurred
very close to known ancient sites (there are many such sites still
not yet marked on British maps) and 50% of all cases had been linked with
remains of the Roman period.
65% of cases were linked with modern transport activities, major roads,
including the M6, featuring largely. Of course, the relative abundance of
the leading features could not be established and, consequently, this could
not be regarded as a truly statistical result. Even so, it suggested a speculative
explanation for the activity – it seemed that the areas being closely
surveyed were those in which modern developments were impinging upon and,
sometimes, modifying the topography of those ancient landmarks. This led
to the speculation that, perhaps, those ancient landmarks (linked with human
activity over the centuries) had been used, from ancient times, as navigational
markers for terrain-following and fully-automated reconnaissance craft –
and whenever such sites were interfered with, it became necessary to re-program
the onboard computers with the new topography. Consequently, it seemed that
the then-suspected automated monitoring of human activities by ETIs had
become even more feasible and resulted in continuation of the study. British
SAC reports were then collected and studied until 1973. Another intense
outbreak of aerial activity occurred in 1971 and the results from the study
of that will be given next.
3.3 Geographical distribution,
The outbreak of SAC activity in 1971 produced another interesting distribution
result, as shown by archive Fig. 5. The North-South orientation of the very
narrow band of events in North West England and the Midland was slightly
more skewed than previously, but, again, followed the course of the M6 very
closely. The nature of the events was generally less spectacular, with few
close encounters reported.
4. The fireballs study
British UFO reports during the 7-year period from 1967 to 1973 included
a significant number of fireball events. The reported objects were often
very mysterious and seemed to defy any mundane explanation. Descriptions
given suggested that they were balls of highly energetic plasma, which were
sometimes huge and blindingly brilliant. Usually, they had had no meteoric
trails, they had been often slow-moving and, sometimes, had seemed to have
been under intelligent control. Their colors had ranged from red, through
green, blue, and white. As their brilliance had been so intense and sometimes
flooded the countryside with light, and they had invariably occurred in
still air conditions, they were obviously not forms of ball lightning. Furthermore,
they had sometimes occurred during periods of reported SAC activity. During
1974, the dates of these events were studied and a diagram was produced
to compare them. This diagram is reproduced as archive Fig. 6.
From the diagram, it becomes very noticeable that no fireball reports had
been recorded for 1970 and the outbreaks had been sporadic and infrequent
during the other years. However, it became apparent that clustering had
sometimes occurred. Further examination revealed that, overall, fireballs
had been reported within +/- 6 days of 10 equally-spaced dates of the year.
This was an intriguing discovery, but it was suspected that those dates
might be found to correspond with well-known periodic meteor showers. To
investigate that possibility, the following table was produced.
|Mean fireball dates
||Jul 27-Aug 17
||Oct 26-Nov 16
A study of this table quickly dismissed the idea that the fireballs might
have been positively associated with the well-known periodic meteor showers.
Five of the ten fireball dates had no obvious connection with periodic meteors.
Three others were sufficiently removed from the usual meteor periods of
those months to be regarded as being unconnected. In fact, only fireballs
of August and October might have been explained as being meteor-related.
All aspects considered, it seemed that the fireball activity might have
been intelligently contrived and, sometimes, had been circumstantially associated
with SAC activity.
Although this exercise was an interesting diversion from the main study,
it was later to influence the manner in which the ensuing global study was
5. The global SAC study
5.1 Initial data gathering
By 1973 the need for an expanded study of world-wide events had become very
evident. If the SAC were originating in space, as the British study had
so clearly indicated, it would be necessary to examine individual reports
from overseas and to look for evidence of meaningful global surveillance
patterns. At that time, the author had been associated with the Manchester-based
research group DIGAP (Direct Investigation Group for Aerial Phenomena) for
six years. One of that group's members, Peter Rogerson, a librarian, had
for some years been compiling a catalogue of the strangest UFO events recorded,
world-wide, since the mid-1800s. In 1973, the Rogerson catalogue, INTCAT,
was being serialized by the amateur research magazine MUFOB (Merseyside
UFO Bulletin). Peter Rogerson supplied complimentary issues of this magazine
to enable data to be extracted. This generous act provided the impetus required
to launch the proposed global study.
The following year, 150 significant SAC events from the period 1868 to 1954
were able to be selected from the various issues of MUFOB and the relevant
data were then tabulated for processing. For each happening, the latitude/longitude
location had to be determined and the time zone identified. This turned
out to be a very testing process, because some of the locations were obscure
and time zones were difficult to determine, especially when the events had
occurred during the late 1800s. Sometimes approximations and guesses had
to be made: for example, if the nearest sizeable town had been mentioned
in the report, the latitude/longitude of that town had to be used, given
the absence of any further information – and the same assumptions
had to be made about the time zone. Some very good cases had to be omitted
from the initial listing because the locations could not be determined.
The lack of reliable times caused other cases to have to be omitted from
the database created for a crucial, subsequent exercise.
Unfortunately, the serialized publication of INTCAT was suddenly interrupted
when the editor of MUFOB moved to a different location and it was not known
whether publication would be continued. This meant that the availability
of catalogued events later than 1954 became uncertain. However, expansion
of the global database was then facilitated by the publishing of another
catalogue of significant global events by an amateur research group in Staffordhsire
(Ref. 4). As with INTCAT, use of this new catalogue was facilitated by the
author's association with DIGAP.
Interesting reports for the period 1954 to 1971 were gradually extracted
from Ref. 4 to expand the global database to some 450 cases. Appendix 2
(to come) gives examples of the cases extracted from both sources. The FORTRAN
listings were created during 1980, but only a few test cases were processed
by a mainframe computer.
5.2 Initial processing of global
At outset, processing began by plotting the locations of events extracted
from the INTCAT records onto a large Cartesian latitude/longitude representation
of the world. This proceeded, step-by-step, with each issue of MUFOB. It
soon became clear that most of the events had been reported in the Northern
Hemisphere, with clusters in the USA and North West Europe featuring largely.
After all the 150 INTCAT cases, covering the period 1865 to 1954, had been
gathered and their locations had been plotted, it had seemed unlikely that
meaningful distribution patterns would be found merely by using the entire
database. A higher level of discernment would have to be exercised. A laborious
process of re-plotting locations involving events in different categories
was then begun. Collections of events which had occurred during the same
date periods; or which involved objects of the same kind; or had other features
in common, were extracted.
The French researcher, Aime Michel, had put forward the idea, in 1963, that
the straight-line distributions of UFO event locations in France, he had
observed previously, could have been indicators that geodetic great circles
might link similar locations all over the world.
As great circles were not difficult to calculate, a series of them, having
a range of inclinations to the equator, were drawn on tracing paper as overlays
for the global graphs, and Michel-like distributions of SAC locations were
sought for. The most impressive outcome from these exercises was provided
by a group of reports of objects either entering or, on one occasion, exiting,
large expanses of water – which was labeled "Water Events."
The events in that collection covered a long period of years and were distributed
all over the world, as shown by archive Fig. 7. The locations are shown
as ringed points and the arcs are segments of great circles, distorted by
the Cartesian presentation of latitude and longitude. The event locations
were found to be approximately linked by seven great circles, as shown.
After the database had been expanded by cases extracted from Ref. 4, similar
exercises were carried out, but without any significant outcome.
Throughout that search for geodetic great circle distributions, it had been
realized that the discovery of such distributions would not constitute proof
that activity had stemmed from space. Such proof might be provided if only
one group of events could be shown to be linked by a typical spiraling ground
track (as traced out beneath it) of an Earth satellite. So, that was to
be the next step – which, ultimately, led to nowhere. Clearly, a new
approach was required.
5.3 The "favored delivery track"
The next idea to be followed was one which conceived the (albeit, remote)
possibility that ET probes from space might approach the Earth from the
same direction among the stars, and might then go into a short-term parking
orbit to facilitate their surveillance activities. Archive Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic
representation of this concept. It is shown that the times of day or night
when these hypothetical orbiting craft passed over a given latitude on Earth
would depend on the time of year. However, during that flyover, the stars
overhead at that latitude would be that same at all times of year, i.e.,
the flyover at that latitude would occur at the same sidereal times. In
fact, the entire orbit could be defined by the sidereal times corresponding
to its flyovers of all other latitudes. The actual places overflown would
depend on the Earth's rotational position, relative to the Sun, during the
short orbiting period. It was also envisaged that surface-exploration craft
would be delivered into the atmosphere and subsequently retrieved by the
orbiter. To explore this idea, it would be necessary to determine the sidereal
time at which each recorded event had occurred, before looking for meaningful
linkups. A meaningful indicator would be an arc of a celestial great circle
which had linked several SAC events reported as being on, or close to, the
The first problem to be faced was the doubtful availability of accurate
timing information. Some of the cases used for the geographical distribution
study lacked any timing information and had to be eliminated from the database
required for this exercise. Thus, the number of timed events was only 368
and some of those times had been approximated. (In fact, the accuracy of
eye-witness times are always suspect, since the last thing anyone thinks
of doing, when suddenly confronted by a SAC, is to check the time.) Given
all the caveats, the chances that anything meaningful would be revealed
by this exercise seemed to be very low – but there seemed to be no
other course left open.
5.4 The search for sidereal connections
The task of determining the sidereal time corresponding to the reported
time of each SAC event seemed to be formidable, given the spare-time nature
of the studies. This led to a search for a shortcut method that would achieve
the same end. After much consideration, the following solution presented
The search would be for sidereal evidence of a favored celestial great circle
arc, which connected several significant SAC events within the atmosphere
and situated directly beneath it. As stated previously, the solar times
of day and night corresponding to such an arc would be dependent on the
latitude of each location and the position of the Earth in its orbit round
the Sun at each time of year. During any given day of the year, the position
of the terminator changes very little (sunrise and sunset times change by
only a few minutes from day to day). As a consequence of this, a plot of
mean solar time against latitude would effectively reveal if any such celestial
arcs were produced by the solar times of SAC events on any given day. The
reason for this form of presentation is that sidereal time (the meridians
of which are the celestial equivalents of the longitude lines on the Earth)
is celestial longitude measured in hours (rather than degrees) to facilitate
observational astronomy. Thus, a celestial arc generated on a given day
relates very closely to the solar times of the locations lying directly
beneath it (see 5.3 and Fig. 8).
The choice of the particular days chosen for this exercise was determined
by the ten equally-spaced mean fireball dates identified in paragraph 4.When
processing began, it soon became clear that insufficient numbers of events
had occurred on those particular days throughout the 86-year period being
considered. This necessitated the introduction of another expedient. The
Earth's progress round the Sun causes the sidereal day to be four minutes
shorter than the mean solar day and, consequently, at any given location,
the same celestial meridian is directly overhead 4 minutes earlier per day
as the year progresses. This fact was then used to convert the solar times
of events on other dates into sidereal-equivalent mean solar times at the
nearest selected date. Events at dates which were up to 18 days earlier
than one of the selected dates had 4 minutes per day subtracted from the
actual mean solar time of the event and, for those events up to 18 days
later, 4 minutes per day were added to the actual time. In this way, meaningful
numbers of sidereal-equivalent mean solar times were gathered for each selected
date, as shown by the table below.
When the converted mean solar times for these events were plotted against
latitude, some remarkable connections were discovered, as shown by archive
Figs 9a and 9b.
Mean solar time is plotted horizontally against latitude. The origin is
placed at midnight on the equator. The events are identified by symbols
which indicate the period of years during which they had occurred –
and the curves drawn through them are segments of celestial great circles,
which were obtained through a painstaking process of overlaying by a series
of calculated great circles plotting on tracing paper. One of the most remarkable
features to be revealed by this exercise was that the "best fit"
arcs were those of circles with the same inclinations to the equator as
that set of approximate geographical great circles found to be connecting
those "Water Events" of para. 5.2.
The discovery of such a large number of interconnecting arcs was completely
unexpected. Some of the interconnected points spanned long periods of time,
suggesting that such tracks might have been long-established ones. The preponderance
of segments having inclinations of between 52° and 54° was a very
noticeable feature of these graphs. Such segments were identified at all
times of the year and were well-defined by the points. Arcs with 43°
inclinations were also clearly defined.
The next question that had to be addressed was whether there were common
sidereal links between the arcs discovered for each of the selected dates.
It was decided to investigate this by comparing the mean solar times
at maximum northern latitudes on the great circle segments. This was
done by plotting those selected datum times, read from Figs 9a and 9b, against
days of the year, as shown by archive Fig. 10. (For "local time"
read mean solar time.) The symbols identified the inclinations of the circles
represented – and the superimposed sloping lines were lines of constant
sidereal time. By careful study of all the points plotted, the best sidereal
match was judged to be one which divided the 24-hour solar day into 22 equal
divisions, as shown – and one of those sidereal lines seemed to be
populated by a series of points which spanned from February 14 to October
28. It was estimated that this line corresponded to a sidereal meridian
of 19:50 hrs right ascension (RA) and seemed to indicate that a favored
approach path from space had been established. In other words, the exercise
had apparently justified the search for such a path.
But further scrutiny of Fig. 10 revealed another, unexpected, feature. A
series of points representing great circles with inclinations between 52°
and 54° seemed to have been related to the times of northern sunset
at those latitudes, as shown. A similar curve superimposed to represent
sunrise times was not so well substantiated. This development seemed to
indicate that on many occasions the great circles in space, which related
to events in the atmosphere, had been arranged to coincide with the sunset
terminator at their points of maximum northern latitude (or declination);
that is, 52°–54° N. There was insufficient evidence to suggest
that the northern sunrise terminator had been similarly used.
The discovery of these Sun-linked great circle arcs suggested that the hypothetical
delivery spacecraft had sometimes followed paths along which they had approached
the Earth, either, from the direction of the Sun, or, towards it. This provided
evidence that they may have emanated from bases set up within the solar
system – a pleasing result, but completely unexpected at outset.
Another interesting question raised by Fig. 10 was whether there might be
a good explanation for those 22 approximately equal sidereal divisions.
It was noticed that there were sets of up to 5 points in consecutive mean
solar time sequences at several of the chosen dates. Due consideration was
given to these features and one explanation was that they might have been
indications that continuous orbiting had taken place on some occasions,
the inclination of the plane of the orbit having been changed after each
completed circuit round the Earth. However, against this idea was the realization
that the celestial great circles represented by those points had been defined
by events sometimes widely spaced in (albeit, recent) history. In other
words, they did not represent the consecutive series of orbits envisaged
in that proposed scenario. A further objection was that no natural satellite
could possibly orbit the Earth in 65.45 minutes, the lowest natural period
being about 90 minutes for a low satellite. Nevertheless, after remembering
the advance technology evidenced and with nothing to lose except time and
patience, the concept was investigated further.
search for geographical evidence of "super-orbiting"
The first step in the required reexamination of the global distribution
patterns was to create a set of pro forma curves (on tracing paper) to represent
the over-the-ground tracks traced out beneath the envisaged "super-orbiters."
Since satellites can move progressively, in the West-to-East direction of
the Earth's daily rotation, or in retrograde motion, from East to West,
two sets of these distinctly different curves had to be produced. Archive
Fig. 11 compares the Cartesian plots of ground tracks for progressive and
retrograde super-orbiters traveling in super-orbits with four typical inclinations.
Geodetic great circle arcs are also drawn for comparison. The full set of
pro formas included ground tracks representing all the celestial great circle
inclinations identified by the sidereal study. Overlaying of the global
plots was then carried out, looking for unmistakable links between SAC events'
The curve-matching exercise begun using the progressive set of arcs,
but, very soon, it became clear that no meaningful alignments existed. However,
this situation changed dramatically when the search was begun with the retrograde
set. Almost immediately, a series of event locations along the east coast
of the USA was seen to be linked, by a single track line, with similar locations
in Europe and the Middle East. Then, very quickly, several other alignments
were found with other track lines. From that initial search, 34 well-aligned
ground tracks were identified and, subsequently, this total grew to become
66. Each track was identified by its inclination and by the longitude
of its intersection with the equator to the east of its northern segment.
The full listing is given by Table 1, which follows.
N.b. +ve = E; -ve = W
Two interesting observations were made from a study of this table:
Further scrutiny of this almost unbelievable result revealed another unexpected
feature of it. The new feature was confirmed during 1980, after colleagues
in the Computer Services Department of British Aerospace, PLC, Manchester,
had very generously given up several lunch periods to plot out the identified
arcs and to extend each one of them to produce one simulated "super-orbit"
of the Earth. These plots were superimposed on world globe presentations,
using a mainframe computer, and they revealed the full global picture. A
study of these presentations showed that, sometimes, the point where one
retrograde super-orbit was completed at the equator virtually coincided
with the starting point for another of the identified track lines. Examples
are shown by archive Fig. 12. This suggested that the operational model
contained elements of continuous orbiting sequences and led to further exploration
of the possibilities. Eventually, archive Fig. 13 was produced to clarify
- Five of the Water Events great circles were shown to be approximations
of those tracks numbered 5, 10, 11, 15, and 27.
- Some equatorial intersections were shared by tracks with different
inclinations. This suggested that these might have been key navigational
reference points from which the retrograde tracks had been generated.
During the execution of one 65.45 minutes' super-orbit of the Earth, the
planet would rotate through 16.36° longitude towards the East, and this
interval would separate the equatorial start and finish points of one such
orbit. Fig. 13 shows the equatorial intersections that defined the recognized
ground tracks, superimposed on sloping lines with slopes of -16.36°.
Three distinct super-orbit sequences became apparent from this graph and
these were labeled "A", "B", and "C".
This discovery then suggested that other track/equator intersections (later
called "track generators") might exist, which had not been revealed by synthesis
of the empirical data. The best mean lines through the original track generator
points also suggested that small corrections were required to them. The
following table (Table 2) was produced to create a complete list of the
revised generators and the new ones inferred by interpolation.
A review of Table 1 will show that only ground tracks corresponding to identified
celestial great circles with inclinations of 43°, 54°, 67°,
and 76° were considered during the initial curve-matching exercise.
This situation arose because tracks with those inclinations were so easily
identified as those linking the plotted geographical locations. Later studies,
however, showed that tracks with 42°, 44°, 52°, 53°, and
63° were also evidence when generated from the same set of equatorial
At this stage of development, the possible tactical uses of this navigational
model for SAC activity were considered – but, as those deliberations
were superceded when the theoretical model had become more fully developed,
they are now considered to be incidental to the main purpose of this paper.
The next major step was, more fully, to investigate the evidence for the
validity of that fixed star-related celestial track orientation labeled
19:50 hrs RA by its northernmost point.
to explore the fixed star-linked track orientation
Using the navigational model as then defined, it was decided that a useful
exercise might be carried out with a newly-formed database. This was brought
together to include 36 cases selected from the global database, 22 outstanding
reports from the intense outbreak of SAC activity in Dyfed (Wales) during
1977 and 17 cases extracted from the BUFORA Journal of 21st July, 1979 –
a total of 75 cases. Employing the tracing paper curve-matching techniques
described previously, the ground tracks passing through each location were
first identified. From the time of the event, the corresponding celestial
orientation of each track was then determined and listed. Whenever more
than one ground track passed through a location, the same number of possible
orientations were associated with that event. This resulted in a total of
103 possible orientations for 75 events. Archive histogram Fig. 14 summarized
the cumulative totals for each orientation.
The 19:50 hrs RA orientation period, though better than average, was shown
not to be particularly outstanding. It was overshadowed by the peaks at
21 to 22 hrs RA and at 23 to 24 hrs RA. An interesting small peak was also
evident between 11 and 13 hrs RA. Consequently, this exploratory exercise
created doubts and uncertainties which were not resolved until the early
6. The local timings exercise
From the procedure that had been followed to carry out the investigation
described in Para. 5.6 another idea had been created. If the global navigational
model were to be assumed to be correct, a series of time predictions for
SAC events could be produced for any given location, which could then be
compared with the actual times of such events recorded from there. This
would involve selecting a suitable location and then determining which of
the identified ground tracks (from the global set) passed through, or close
to, that site. There were 10 possible inclinations and 66 nominal equatorial
generators to be considered. When the ground tracks had been identified,
it would then be a matter of predicting the local times of events that might
have been spawned from the associated great circles in space. The global
study had produced two possible orientations for those circles, one related
to the sunset terminator at 52°–54° N latitude and the other
to the datum meridian 19:50 hrs RA. The later study (Para 5.6) had suggested
that there might be others.
Following the acquisition of a PC during 1988, a program was written to
facilitate exploration of that local timings idea. To ensure that all the
recognized possibilities were taken into account, this program included
the set of 66 rationalized equatorial generators plus non-conforming original
generators which were displaced more than 1° longitude from the associated
generators of the rationalized set. Given the latitude/longitude co-ordinates
of a location and the Mean Solar Time of an event at that location, the
program would then output each ground track passing within a specified lateral
displacement tolerance of the location. It would also output the orientation
of the celestial great circle associated with a particular ground track.
Selected cases were processed and it was found that some orientations seemed
to occur frequently. However, the same difficulties arose as those experienced
during the previous (manually-processed) exercise – there were still
too many possibilities and the concentrations between 11 hr and 13 hr RA
and from 18 hr to 2 hr RA were still evident. Both Sunset and Sunrise orientations
were also indicated. It seemed that another method would have to be contrived
to clarify this promising but still-confused situation.
Development of local timings graphs
Since the local times related to the celestial orientations would be changing
from day to day throughout any year, the obvious way to present the predicted
timings seemed to be by means of a graph of local time (MST) plotted against
days of the year.
Four possible datum timing lines, sunset, sunrise, 12 hrs RA (provisionally
representative) and 19:50 hrs RA, could be drawn on this graph and timing
lines for the identified ground tracks would be displaced by time increments
(or decrements) from those datum lines. Thus, the basic graph would be similar
to Fig 10, but with only the datum lines initially drawn in. The appropriate
increments or decrements associated with each qualifying ground track would
be determined in the manner shown by Fig 15.
Fig 15 is a graph of celestial great circle declination (or equivalent
latitude) plotted against a six-hour scale of right ascension (RA). The
origin is on the equator and at a nominal datum zero RA hours position,
so that the 6 hours to the right of it can be regarded as increments in
RA hours. Superimposed upon this layout are curves, each representing one
quarter of a celestial great circle with a given inclination to the equator.
Suppose now that our location is somewhere in Britain – say, Warminster,
Wiltshire. The latitude of Warminster is 51° 12', wherever that line
cuts a curve will give the RA increment, in hours, which would apply for
a ground track associated with the celestial great circle represented by
that curve. Whether the time displacement from each of the datum lines would
be an increment or a decrement would be determined by whether the track
through the site is orientated approximately SE to NW or from NE to SW,
respectively. (If the track lay exactly E to W, then there would be a zero
time increment because the location would be lying at the latitude directly
below the datum point on one of the identified celestial circles.)
The ground tracks passing within a specified lateral tolerance from the
site's location would be identified by running the PC program with just
a nominal event time input. The RA increments/decrements associated with
each track in the output list would then be determined from Fig. 15. Lines
parallel to the datum lines could then be drawn displaced by the appropriate
increment or decrement. (Increments/decrements of RA are virtually the same
as hours of mean solar time.)
Concurrent with this new objective, UFO reports, sometimes associated with
the appearance of circular formations in the crops of Wiltshire and Hampshire,
were being reported and, responding to an invitation from Mr. Colin Andrews
(a now-famous researcher of the crop circles phenomenon), the author visited
the area during the late summer of 1988. In view of this experience, it
had seemed pertinent to produce the first, hand-drawn, timings graph for
that affected region of England. After the graph had been drawn, a data
sample for events recorded in that area was then required, to test it.
During 1989, Ref. 5 was published and provided 21 cases for consideration.
These were added to by 3 other reports from other sources to produce a total
of 24 timings for events reported between 1965 and 1990. Archive Fig. 16
shows how these timings plotted out, before the datum lines were drawn in.
Sidereal trends were unmistakably in evidence. (This result was all the
more surprising because some of the cases considered had not been UFO events.
In fact, seven of them were associated with (sometimes) witnessed
mysterious crop circle creation and four others were the times when strange
vortices and whirlwinds had suddenly arisen, which had defied explanations.
The remaining cases were typical UFO reports. The author of the book had
put forward all those cases as evidence in favor of his natural "plasma
vortex" hypothesis. However, the evidence of sidereal linking presented
by Fig. 16 seemed to suggest they were more likely to be artificial phenomena
connected with the global SAC activity.
(It is important to state, before further expansion, that the hand-drawn
archival graphs, being referenced, label the time axis in various ways –
e.g., local time, true local time. These were terms used, provisionally,
to communicate the discoveries to researchers and other interested people
with little or no astronomical knowledge. In fact, they referred to mean
When the newly-produced timings graph pro forma was superimposed on this
set of data points, interesting displacements became apparent. It was found,
by sliding the 19:50 hrs RA set of lines upwards, that a very good match
was produced between the plotted lines and the data points. In fact, this
occurred with the datum line then at 21:30 hrs RA. With a similar displacement,
downwards, of the 12 hrs RA set of lines, the points of the lower part of
the graph were accounted for when the revised datum line was then at 11
hrs RA. These changes were considered to be important, as they promised
to resolve the uncertainty about the sidereal orientations – but,
clearly, the changes had to be tested, in the first instance, by SAC data
gathered from that area of Southern England. At this juncture, a revised
pro forma graph was produced, as shown by archive Fig. 17.
To provide data for the first test of the new predictions graph, 23 SAC
cases were extracted from Ref. 10.6. These had been reported during the
mid-1970s and the result obtained when their timings had been superimposed
upon the pro forma is shown by archive Fig. 18. The result was an almost
unbelievably-good match. It seemed that the lines had been drawn through
the points, rather than vice-versa. Even the sunset and sunrise lines had
Spurred by this result, hand-drawn pro forma graphs were produced for several
other interesting locations. One such location was the region of East Norfolk
and Suffolk, drawn with the alleged SAC activity during 1980, at the Woodbridge
Air Base, in mind. Unfortunately, it had to be acknowledged that reliable
dates and times for those particular events had not become available, but
information had been obtained for other events in that general area and
the times given for them were superimposed, as shown by archive Fig. 19.
The outbreak of SAC reports from Belgium, some of which had involved the
Belgian Air Force and gendarmes, prompted the plotting or archive Fig. 20.
The correlation between the lines and the available data points was, again,
After several pro forma graphs for various other locations had been produced
by hand, in that fashion, it became clear that the process was far too labor-intensive
and time-consuming and needed to be computerized. If a sufficiently large
number of locations could be considered, world-wide, and positive results
were able to be obtained from them, then such a result would constitute
proof of the validity of the model – which later became known as the
Astronautical Theory for UFO Close Encounters. This resulted from the publication
in 1995 of the Ashpole book (Ref. 7), which referred to it as "a theory
to predict Close Encounters". It is currently referred to as the Astronautical
Theory for SAC Encounters, even though the acronym SAC is not yet in
7. The fully computerized model
7.1 Local timings graphs
A typical computer-produced graphical output for local timings graphs is
shown by Fig. 21, (incidentally) for a location in Wiltshire, England. It
is the now-famous Alton Barnes, a small village south of Marlborough, which
has become the scene of some of the most outstanding crop-formations of
the past decade. Special crop and sky watches have been held there, utilizing
TV and LLTV cameras, IR cameras, radar and 24-hours-a-day visual watches
during the summer months. Despite all this equipment, no one has yet managed
to capture the creation of a crop-formation from the hilltop overlooking
the targeted field. However, many kinds of anomalous phenomena have been
recorded there, including SAC events.
Referring now to the archetypal Fig. 21, details of the chosen location
are given at the top of the page. The tolerance value is the allowed maximum
lateral displacement (degrees longitude) of any ground track from the given
location and it is chosen to provide not more than seven tracks per site.
The maximum value of tolerance is 1.0, but in practice lateral displacement
rarely exceeds 30 nautical miles. The "y" factor merely compensates
for printer distortion of the grid map shown in the to R.H. corner of the
page. The latitude/longitude grid map locates the chosen site as a ringed
point and the ground tracks identified by the program are superimposed.
The arrows on those lines indicate the retrograde motion of the hypothetical
delivery/retrieval craft traveling in space, directly overhead. The model
suggests that one track will be used to deliver a probe into the atmosphere
and another track will be followed to retrieve the probe later. To the left
of the grid map, the global identifiers of the selected ground tracks are
listed. The tracks are numbered 1 up to 7, in order of recognition by the
program. The next figure gives the inclination of the related celestial
great circle and this is followed by the equatorial generator of the ground
track. The final figure relates to the "super-orbit" sequence with which
that track is associated. The computed predicted-timings graph occupies
the lower part of the page. The date scale is divided into 3-day intervals
to aid easy selection of a given date. The 24-hour timescale has been folded
to facilitate continuous plotting of the lines of constant sidereal times
– thus, both scales apply on any given day. The timescale is given
as Zone Standard Time, the conversions to mean solar time now being carried
out by the program. Corrections are necessary for clock times during Daylight
Savings Time (DST or BST) periods of each year. Four distinct sets of timing
lines are easily differentiated and they correspond to 11:00 hrs RA, 21:30
hrs RA, sunset and sunrise orientations. The timing lines in each set are
labeled with the numbers of the related ground track lines. (Note: It will
be found that some of the computed lines have Mean Solar Time equivalents
in the hand-drawn Fig. 17.)
Numerous graphs of this kind have now been produced for sites all over the
world and some of them are being used effectively by in-the-field observers.
Fig. 22 is an example of such a graph with new test data superimposed.
7.2 Numerical computer processing
Useful and explicit though the graphical method is, it does not facilitate
rapid processing of new data or the rapid expansion of the processed database.
Programs for numerical processing of events have been created to meet this
need. The latest development program to be used for this purpose was created
three years ago. This processes the input data and creates a printed output
which identifies each of the qualifying tracks and celestial orientation
of each track, together with the difference between the given (input) time
and the predicted time to the nearest minute. Solutions considered as confirming
the Astronautical Theory produce time differences of not more than ±
20 minutes. Some two thirds of cases in the current processed database qualify
in that way – but it is important to realize that the timing predictions
are considered to be the expected times of arrival and departure of the
atmospheric probes, and that the intervening period may not always be filled
by totally clandestine activity. In other words, encounters can be expected
to occur between arrival and departure on some occasions. Table 3 is an
example of the output from this program.
After processing, the result is installed into one of the series of listings
constituting the Processed Database. A listing exists for each decade since
1950 and each of these listings are linked to a sort program, which allows
sorting of events by location, country, date, track inclination, track orientation,
orbit sequence and type of object encountered – or any combination
of two of these. There are currently over 900 processed cases listed and
these do not include those events which provided data for the original global
Several other programs have been produced to facilitate specialized studies,
one of which investigates the possible importance of the positions of solar
system bodies in the automated navigational system apparently discovered.
8. Discussion of features of the Theory
8.1 Review of the basic development process
The delivery and retrieval, from space, of atmospheric probes utilizing
technology well beyond current human achievement, was a concept which arose
from a study of SAC encounters reported in Britain during 1967. From those
early feasibility studies, the search for incontrovertible evidence of a
programmed astronautical monitoring activity developed. A reasoned approach
led into a search for evidence of, perhaps, just one favored incursion path
from space, which, it was thought, might be able to be found by use of a
historical database derived from selected reports from the mid-1880s up
to the early 1970s. That exercise, after many false starts, eventually produced
a wealth of evidence that the early suspicions had been largely correct,
except that it indicated the existence of several favored approach paths,
one set referencing the fixed stars and others the terminator, at sunset
and, possibly, sunrise. A problem arose when, during later processing, the
original sidereal orientation was found to be apparently just one possibility
among many. Close examination of events recorded largely from southern England
then seemed to resolve this difficulty, except that the original orientation,
with its datum at 19:50 hrs RA, then seemed to have been superseded by another
with its datum point at 21:30 hrs RA. The validity of this change seemed
to be borne out by further investigations using new data. These later investigations
also confirmed that the sunrise terminator had been referenced on some occasions.
The findings at this juncture were provisionally written into PC programs
created to evaluate new data. A multitude of results obtained, to date,
have seemed to verify the validity of this astronautical model and to establish
the reality of programmed ETI surveillance activity.
Exploration of the sidereal-orientation puzzle
Attempts have been made to discover the reasons for the change in the favored
19:50 hrs RA sidereal orientation that was so clearly indicated by the original
global study result. There seem to be three possible explanations:
In view of all the successful PC processing carried out with data not used
for the original global study, the output from which has shown the 21:30
hrs RA links to feature largely, the second possibility is currently being
largely discounted. On the other hand, the first possibility cannot be lightly
accepted. For these reasons, much attention has been given to the remaining
explanation – but many, so far unresolved, problems have been encountered.
- The original finding was just a fluke indication;
- The subsequent finding was incorrect;
- The source of that "star-linked" activity is orbiting the sun and
is, therefore, causing the track orientations associated with it to
move slowly round the sky as it progresses in its orbit.
Close examination of the celestial great circles which were indicators of
the original sidereal orientation revealed that they had been defined by
events recorded largely during the 1950s and 1960s. However, other events
from that period have been processed through the PC programs and have been
found to be consistent with the revised orientation. This opens the possibility
that reprocessing with the original orientation programmed-in might also
produce good correlation, but with tracks differently inclined. This potentially
time-consuming experiment has not yet been carried out, because many other
considerations provide deterrents – not least, that consideration
that the revised orientation was derived from data spanning the years 1965
to 1990, a period which, therefore, overlapped with the earlier period of
Consideration of the idea of a source (ETI-established base) moving in solar
orbit presents its own difficulties. For example, if it is considered that
the 19:50 hr RA orientation applied at, say, 1950 and the 21:30 hr RA one
to, say, 1980, that might mean that the source had moved through 1:40 hr
RA in 30 years, which would mean that its period round the Sun would be
about 430 years. This would place it in the outer solar system, well beyond
the orbit of Pluto. If, however, the period covered by the orientation change
had been only 20 years, the period of the source's orbit would be some 290
years – and so on. The shorter the period is assumed to be, the more
rapid the movement of the orientations round the sky and the less reliable
the processed results from the PC.
Another arrangement that would produce very slow movement of the "fixed"
orientations round the sky might be one in which the sources of monitoring
activities, stemming from those particular paths in space, are situated
in an extremely distant solar orbit, and have a period corresponding to
the period of Earth's polar axis precession, 25,800 years. This would place
them at approximately 890 AU (0.014 light-year) from the Sun and in the
plane of the celestial equator. If, judging from the witnessed performance
capabilities of the exploration craft operating within the atmosphere, we
consider it to be very likely that the delivery/retrieval spacecraft are
capable of near light-speed transits, that capability would enable them
to travel in virtual straight lines across the solar system. Such an arrangement
would greatly facilitate programmed long-term monitoring of Earth by fully
automated probes, since the programmed paths round the planet could be followed
without the constant need to amend the navigational programming. However,
the movement in the sky of those programmed paths in space over a period
of, say, 50 years, would be only 2.8 minutes RA. This particular scenario
does not therefore provide an answer to the 19:50/21:30 hrs RA problem.
Much more work is required.
It has been noticed that all four approach/departure track orientations
are in fact linked to the celestial sphere. The sidereal meridians coinciding
with the track/terminator intersections at 53° latitude have been found
to determine the orientations of all the sunrise/sunset-linked approach/departure
tracks, whatever their inclinations might be. This means, given the programmed
nature of the model, that the obvious placement for the sources of all approach/departure
tracks activity will be somewhere in the plane of the celestial equator,
rather than in the ecliptic plane of the solar system.
8.3 Terminator-linked tracks
Even though the terminator-linked track options, of all inclinations, are
celestially determined and the obvious sources (bases) for craft using this
kind of navigational programming would, therefore, be in the celestial equatorial
plane, the fact that the sunset orientation has been found to be much used,
at all times of year, indicates that navigation towards or away from the
sun may be assisted by reference to conveniently placed solar system bodies.
A pilot study has already been carried out to assess that possibility, with
very encouraging results. The report of that study will be referenced in
the Bibliography sections at the end of this paper. The frequently-found
links between reported SAc events and the sunset orientation may be biased
by the fact that many people are outside during the evening period, between
sunset and midnight – but it is important that reports of SAC seen
during that period should not be cynically dismissed without investigation.
It could be that this period, when many people are out and about, is also
favored for monitoring our activities.
The work described by this paper has been carried out, with scientific objectivity,
over a period of more than three decades. A step-by-step case has been built
up in the same logical order as that followed by the actual work. Despite
the dismissive attitude of many scientists towards the available phenomenological
evidence, because it is often hidden within a plethora of UFO reports, it
has been demonstrated that sober and methodological treatment of eye-witness
reports of strange aerial craft (SAC), worldwide – and for a period
of over a century – has provided adequate grounds for believing that
regular monitoring activity of Earth is being carried out by ETI. To challenge
this conclusion, in a scientific manner, ought to involve any challenger
in a lot of hard work – nevertheless, it has been acknowledged that
the work presented here should be regarded as exploratory and unfinished
and in need of further attention.
Despite the obvious shortcomings of the present work, use of the indicators
it has produced might greatly assist those scientists engaged in SET and
OSETI activities, and others watching the skies for signs of further atmospheric
ETI monitoring activity. Amateur skywatchers have already benefited from
the timing predictions for SAC activity in localized areas and, as a result
of several successful (predicted) observations of anomalous lights in the
sky, an Irish astronomer recently presented a paper to an OSETI conference
during January, 2001, telling of his intention to set up a special observatory
at a promising location in Ireland (Ref 10.8).
Finally, it is hoped that publication of this paper will put an end to all
the nonsense that has bedeviled and barred communication of this research
throughout the years. A significant step forward seemed to be achieved during
1998, when a paper co-authored with Edward Ashpole (Ref 10.9) was awarded
a first prize in an essay competition organized by the National Institute
of Discovery Science (NIDS), Las Vegas, but the authors have received little
positive response to it, to date, despite its availability on the NIDS website.
It is hoped that scientific minds newly-opened to the possibilities by this
paper will want to read the other reports and papers written by the author
since the formulation of the basic theory a decade ago. These additional
papers have demonstrated, for example, how new events reported from several
regions of Britain have correlated well with the predictions of the Theory;
explored the tactics employed by the probes during short visits to the planet;
explored the possible role of solar system bodies in facilitating automated
operations in accordance with the programmed navigational system; demonstrated
circumstantial links between SAC activity and truly inexplicable crop-circle
formations. These papers will be listed in the Bibliography section and
will be available on request.
- Stanway, R. H., and Pace, A. R. "UFOs, Unidentified, Unidentifiable"
(report), February 1968. (Newchapel Observatory, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordhire,
- Leslie, D., and Adamski, G. Flying Saucers Have Landed. Neville
Spearman Ltd (1954, 1970), Futura Publications (1977, 1978).
- Cramp, L. G. Space, Gravity and the Flying Saucer. T. Werner
Laurie, Ltd (1954).
- Wagg, P. A. J. The 1972 Catalogue of the National Catalogue Centre
for UFO Reports. NCCUFOR (GB), Walsall, Staffordshire.
- Meaden, T. G. The Circles Effect and its Mysteries. Artetech
Publishing Company, 54 Frome Road, Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts.
- Shuttlewood, A. UFO Magic in Motion. Sphere Books, Ltd. (1979).
- Ashpole, E. The UFO Phenomena. London: Headline Book Publishing
- Ansbro, A. "New OSETI Observatory to Search for Interstellar Probes,"
OSETI III Conference, San Jose, California, Jan. 2001.
- Dutton, T. R., and Ashpole, E. "Intelligences in the Solar System,"