Macro-Engineers' Dreams, Richard Cathcart
Chapter 1, references
- Max Dublin, Futurehype: the tyranny of prophesy, p. 44. See
also: Douglas Davis, Mad Ideas: An Encyclopedia of Outlandish Solutions
(1994); Ronald D. Rotstein, The Future: Trends and Developments Through
the4 21st Century (1990) and Walter J. Karplus, The Heavens Are
Falling: The Scientific Prediction of Catastrophe in Our Time (1993).
- William K. Hartmann and Ron Miller, The History of Earth: An Illustrated
Chronicle of an Evolving Planet (1991).
- B.L. Turner (ed.), Earth As Transformed by Human Action: Global
and Regional Changes in the Biosphere Over teh Past 300 Years (1990).
- Lewis Wolpert, The Unnatural Nature of Science: Why Science Does
Not Make (Common) Sense (1993), p. 2.
- A.W. Stewart, "Think Tanks: Their Role in Our Society, a Checklist,"
Vance Bibliographies P-2091 (January 1987), pp 1-10.
- Marina Vaizey, Christo (1990). Whatever its merit as art, Christo's
works are construction jobs! The Oxford Dictionary of Art (1988)
at page 105 credits Christo with inventing "Packing Art." Packaging
Art is carried, perhaps to its planetary ultimate, by a terraformer
presently working in Japan. He proposes to "wrap" Mars with a plastic
membrane installed by nan-robots over a period of less than 10 years!
See: Charles R. Morgan, "Terraforming with Nanotechnology," Journal
of the British Interplanetary Society, 47, 311-318 (August 1994).
Morgan's installation would resemble a facility proposed to cover the
Earth's Sahara in Chapter Eight of this author's text.
- See: Richard Clar, "Space Flight Dolphin: An Art-and-Technology Payload
for the Space Shuttle," Leonardo, 26, 293-296 (1993) and Pamela
Huouk, "Sky Art's Lofty Ambitions," Sculpture, 10, 44-49 (May-June
1991). During April 1993, Space Marketing Inc. of Roswell, Georgia (USA)
proposed launching a "space billboard" into Earth orbit for the 1996
Summer Olympics. A company logo would be visible for two weeks until
the reflective flag-shaped Mylar fabric satellite was destroyed by neutral
orbital degradation. Greg Miller, "It's a Bird! A Plane! It's an Ad?
Billboard Idea Launches Fight," Los Angeles Times, CXII, A5 (4
- Homo sapiens sapiens is only one of our Earth-biosphere's 3-30
million species. See: Robert M. May, "How Many Species Inhabit the Earth?",
Scientific American, 267, 42 (October 1992). "Species" has been
legislatively defined (example: the USA's Endangered Species Act of
1973), putting an esoteric scientific debate into the national and international
arena. Wild hybrids cast considerable doubt on the applicability of
"species," as currently defined by American law-makers! See: Kevin D.
Hill, "The Endangered Species Act: What Do We Mean by Species?", Boston
College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 20, 239-264 (Winter 1993).
- Anon., "Get Out the Lifeboats! Antarctica is Melting," Time,
140, 26-27 ( November 1992) and Michael D. Lemonick, "The Ice Age Cometh?",
Time, 143, 79-81 (31 January 1994). A movie starring Kevin Costner,
Waterworld (1995), folows Time's 1992 script! Modelings
confirm a predicted coming of large changes. See: Syukuro Manabe and
R.J.Stouffer, "Century-scale effects of increased atmospheric CO2
on the ocean-atmosphere system," Nature, 364, 215-218 (15 July
- M.R. Rampino and K. Caldeira, "Major episodes of geologic change:
correlations, time structure and possible causes," Earth and Planetary
Science Letters, 114, 215-227 (January 1993). For cuurent scientific
depictions of Earth as it probably looked before the start of the natural
reshaping over 200 million years ago, see J.E. Kutzbach, "Simulated
Circulation of an Idealized Ocean for Pangaean Time," Paleogeography,
5, 299-317 (June 1990) and J.T. Parrish, "Climate of the Supercontinent
Pangea," The Journal of Geology, 101, 215-233 (March 1993). The
causes of Pangea's breakup is a matter of speculation. Since great scars
can still be seen on Earth's landscape-see, John W. Norman, "Tectonic
Effects of Old Very Large Meteoritic Impacts on Earth Shown on Satellite
Imagery: A Review and Speculations," Journal of Structural Geology,
6, 737-747 (1984)-it might be supposed that Pangea was broken into continental-sized
pieces by asteroidal impacts, especially on our planet's southern hemisphere.
See: C.D. Perrine, "The Origin of the Earth's Land Formations," Science,
92, 210-212 (6 September 1940) and David W. Hughes, "Meteorite Incidence
Angles," Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 103,
123-126 (June 1993).
- Charles Babbage (1791-1871), today considered one of the inventors
of the computer, wrote one of the first mostly-correct theoretical interpretations
of the greenhouse effect. (See: Duncan Steel, "Charles Babbage . . .
and the greenhouse effect," Journal of the British Astronomical Association,
102, 246-247, October 1992). Until 1957, when oceanographer Roger Revelle
(1919-1991) fostered worldwide interest in a potentially real greenhouse
effect, scientists had not anticipated an atmospheric buildup of carbon
dioxide gas generated by our industrial and agricultural activities
causing significant changes to the Earth-biosphere. "Greenhouse effect"
became a vogue term by 1963 and is still a topic of major international
scientific and geopolitical debate. See: Patrick J. Michaels, "The Greenhouse
Effect and Global Change: Review and Reappraisal," International
Journal of Environmental Studies, 36, 55-71 (1990).
- So far, Homo sapiens has not discovered living things during
our extra-Earth explorations of the Universe. Mankind is unlikely ever
to feel confident that we know all the forms of life. Future nanotechnologies
are to become Amphions via their likely creation of artificial life.
The first four international interdisciplinary conferences (1987, 1990,
1992 and 1994) that focused on the ways and means for the creation of
artificial life have foreseen humans ordering the imminent efforts of
unlimited labor utilizing infinite resources!See: Christopher G. Langton
(ed.), Artificial Life (1989), Artificial Life II (1991),
Artificial Life III (1994), and Faye Flam, "Artificial-Life Researchers
Try to Create Social Reality," Sience, 265, 868-869 (12 August
1994). The next international conference on artificial life will convene
in Kyoto, Japan, in 1996. In the meantime, the Third European Conference
on Artificial Life will be held in Granada, Spain, in the summer of
1995. The first issues (Fall/Winter) of Volume 1 of a new quarterly
journal, Artificial Life, was published by MIT Press in March
- Fred Hapgood, "The Really Little Engines That Might," Technology
Review, 96, 30 (February-March 1993).
- R. S. Eisenberg, "Patents and the Progress of Science: Exclusive Rights
and Exerimental Use," The University of Chicago Law Review, 56,
1086 (Summer 1989).
- Leonard M. Adelman, "Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial
Problems," Science, 266, 1021-1024 (11 November 1994).
- David F. Channell, The Vital Machine: A Study of Technology and
Organic Life (1991), p. 135. ee also: Johndale C. Solem, "The Motility
of Microbots," pp. 359-380 in Christopher G. Langton (ed.), Artificial
Life III (1994).
- "Biology" was first coined by Karl Friedrich Burdach (1776-1847),
who used it to denote a study of Homo sapiens from the combined
viewpoints of physiology and psychology. But in 1802 the term was given
a much wider definition and increased prominence in science's literature
by Lamarck and Gottfried R. Treviranus (1776-1837). Treviranus's Biologie
oder die Philosophie der lebenden Natur (1802-1822) simply defined
the term as "... the science of life." The first full-blown expression
that humans are machines came in 1748, when J. de La Mattrie (1709-1751)
wrote L'homme Machine. Lamarcks definition seems to be elastic
enough to include artificial life as well as cybernetic organisms!
- J. William Schopf (ed.) Earth's Earliest Biosphere (1983) and
The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study (1992).
- Ian K. Bradbury, The Biosphere (1991).
- If the reader can see a "face" staring at mankind in our Earth's present-day
distributions of land and ocean, then the author must admit failing
the Swiss psychiatrist's famous test! Would Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922)
have found a "face" on Earth?
- Lawrence W. Swan, "The Aeolian Biome," BioScience, 42, 262-270
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