Carbon offsetting is a set up to help neutralize the impact of carbon emissions. The idea was conceived at the first Kyoto Protocol negotiations in 1997. Basically carbon emissions in one place are offset by investing money into technologies or practices that reduce carbon in another place or industry. These include tree planting, tree conservation, and renewable energy projects (solar and wind farms). There are two types of carbon offsetting: mandatory and voluntary. Mandatory carbon offsetting is controlled by regulations and formal emission trading programs. Voluntary carbon offsetting is not as controlled and is about calculating the carbon emissions of a certain activity and then paying a fee to have those emissions offset.