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Indus Valley civilization

Centered round the Indus River in India and Pakistan, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. Superimposed on earlier stone- and bronze-using cultures dating from c.4000 BC, the Indus Valley civilization centered around Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, and lasted from c.2500 to c.1750 BC. About 100 of its towns and villages, some with fortified citadels, have been identified.