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Xerxes (c.519–465 BC)

King of Persia (486–465 BC). Succeeding to the throne on the death of his father, Darius I, he organized a vast army which defeated the Greeks at Thermopylae, and destroyed Athens (480 BC), but on the defeat of his navy at Salamis (480 BC), he retreated to Persia where he was later assassinated.