X-Y miking is one of three types of stereo microphone technique. In X-Y miking two directional mics (typically cardioid) cross at an angle from 90 degrees to 130 degrees, with their capsules placed closely together. The result is good stereo separation with a well-balanced image.
X-Y miking can be done two ways – with the two capsules of the mics together facing each other or facing away from each other. Facing the capsules together has the advantage that the capsules can be brought closer together. The closer the capsules (and the diaphragms) of the mics, the better, due to phase cancellations. Two pencil condensers are the best choice for this type of work. The greater the splay of the two mics the greater the stereo effect.
See also spaced pair.