Artabazus was the name of several distinguished Persians under the dynasty of the Achemenidae. When Xerxes advanced against Greece, an Artabazus led the Parthians and Chorasmians. At a later date he warned Mardonius, but in vain, against engaging in battle at Platea; on his defeat fled with 40,000 men, and reached Asia safely.


Another Artabazus was general under the Persian king, Artaxerxes II, and afterwards revolted against Artaxerxes III. For this offence he was forgiven, through the efforts of his brother-in-law, Mentor, a favorite and staunch supporter of the next king, Darius, whom we subsequently find Artabazus faithfully attending after the battle of Arbela. Alexander rewarded his fidelity by appointing him satrap of Bactria.