civil engineering

Civil engineering is that branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of stationary structures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, etc. The term "civil engineer" was first used c.1750 by John Smeaton, who built the Eddystone Lighthouse. Nowadays, civil engineering incorporates modern technological advances in the structures required by industrial society. The branches of the field include: surveying, concerned with the selection of sites; hydraulic and sanitary engineering, dealing with public water supply and sewage disposal, etc.; transportation engineering, which deals with highways, airports, and so on; structural engineering, which is concerned with the actual planning and construction of permanent installations; and environmental, town, or city planning, which improves existing urban environments and plans the development of new areas.