# von Neumann, John (1903–1957)

John von Neumann was a Hungarian-American mathematician who made important contributions to set
theory, computer science, economics, and quantum
mechanics. John von Neumann (pronounced von noi-man) received a Ph.D.
in mathematics from the University of Budapest and later he worked at the
Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. The book *Games and Economic
Behavior*,^{1} which he co-authored with Oskar Morgenstern in
1944, is considered a seminal work in the field of game
theory. Von Neumann devised the so-called von Neumann architecture used
in all modern computers and studied cellular
automata in order to construct the first examples of self-replicating
automata, now known as von Neumann machines.
Von Neumann had a mind of great ingenuity, nearly total recall of what he'd
learned, immense arrogance, and a great love of jokes and humor.

### References

1. Neumann, J. von and Morgenstern, O. *Theory of Games and Economic
Behavior*. New York: Wiley, 1964.

2. Poundstone, William. *Prisoner's Dilemma: John Von Neumann, Game
Theory and the Puzzle of the Bomb*. New York: Anchor, reprinted
1993.