Bardeen, John (1908–1991)
American physicist who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics
with William Shockley and Walter Brattain
for their development of the transistor.
In 1972 he became the first person to win the physics prize a second time,
sharing the award with Leon Cooper and
John Schrieffer for their development
of a comprehensive theory of superconductivity
known as the BCS theory. He worked with
the Bell Telephone Laboratories (1945–51) and was then professor of
physics at Illinois University (1951–71).