A

/h1>

David

Darling

Encyclopedia of Science: C entries

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

Cabibbo angle
cable, electric
cable, mechanical
cable car
Cacciatore, Niccolò (1780–1841)
cactus
cadmium
caduceus
Caelum (constellation)
caffeine
Cage, John (1912–1992)
Caidin, Martin (1927–1997)
Cairns-Smith, A. Graham
caisson
cake-cutting
Calabash Nebula
Calabi-Yau space
calamine
calcination
calcite
calcitonin
calcium
calcium aluminum inclusions
calcium channel blocker
calculating machine
calculi
calculus
CALCULUS AND ANALYSIS
calculus of variations
caldera
calendar
calendar curiosities
calendering
calf muscles
Caliban
calibration
California Nebula (NGC 1499)
californium
calipers
CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Observations)
Callisto
Callisto, ocean and possible life
callus
calorie
calorimetry
Caloris Basin (Mercury)
Caltech Submillimeter Observatory
Calvin, Melvin (1911–1997)
Calvin cycle
Calypso
calyx
cam
camber
cambium
Cambrian
Cambridge Platonists
Camelopardalis
camera
camera lucida and camera obscura
camouflage
camphor
Cameron, Alastair G. W. (1925–2005)
Campanella, Tommaso (1568–1634)
Campbell, Jr., John W(ood) (1910–1971)
Campbell, William Wallace (1862–1938)
Canada in space
Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope
Canadarm
Canadian Shield
Canadian Space Society
canal
canali
canals, Mars
Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex
cancer
Cancer (constellation)
Cancer, Tropic of
55 Cancri (Rho1 Cancri)
candela
candlepower
Canes Venatici
Canes Venatici Cloud
Canes Venatici I Group
Canes Venatici II Group
Canis Major
Canis Major Dwarf
Canis Minor
cannibalism, interstellar
Cannizzaro, Stanislao (1826–1910)
Cannon, Annie Jump (1863–1941)
Cannon, Walter Bradford (1871–1945)
Cannonball Problem
cannula
Canopus (Alpha Carinae)
Cantor, Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp (1845–1918)
Cantor dust
canyon
Canyon (spy satellites)
cap
capacitance
capacitor
CapCom
Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Photographic Dürchmusterung
Cape York meteorite
Capella (Alpha Aurigae)
Caph (Beta Cassiopeiae)
capillary
capillary action
capillary constant
Capricorn, Tropic of
Capricornus
Capricornus Dwarf
capsule
captured rotation
carapace
carbide
carbohydrate
carbon
carbon burning
carbon cycle
carbon dioxide
carbon fiber
carbon fixation
carbon monoxide
carbon nanotube
carbon star
carbon-14
carbonaceous chondrite
carbonate
carbonation
carbon-based life
carbonic acid
Carboniferous period
carbon-nitrogen cycle
carbonyl group
carborundum
carboxyl group
carboxylic acids
carbuncle
carburetor
carcinogen
carcinoma
Cardano, Girolamo (1501–1570)
cardiac catheterization
cardiac CT
cardiac massage
cardiac MRI
cardiac muscle
cardiac rehabilitation
cardinal number
carding
cardiogenic shock
cardioid
cardiomyopathy
cardioversion
cards
caries
Carina
Carina Dwarf
Carina OB1 and OB2
Carme
Carmichael number
Carnegie & California Planet Search
Carnegie Observatories
carnelian
Carnivora
carnivore
carnivorous plant
Carnot cycle
carnotite
carotene
carotenoids
carotid artery
carotid artery disease
carotid body
carotid endarterectomy
carotid sinus
carotid ultrasound
carpal
carpal tunnel syndrome
carpel
Carpenter, Malcolm Scott (1925–2013)
Carr, Gerald P. (1932–)
Carrel, Alexis (1873–1944)
carrier
Carrier, Willis Haviland (1876–1950)
carrier particle
carrier wave
Carrington, Richard Christopher (1826–1875)
Carroll, Lewis (1832–1898)
Carte du Ciel
Cartesian coordinates
Cartesian oval
cartilage
Cartwheel Galaxy
Cartwright, Edmund (1743–1823)
cascade liquefier
Cascade Mountains
casein
Casimir effect
casparian strip
Cassegrain telescope
Cassini (spacecraft)
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico (1625–1712)
Cassinian ovals
Cassiopeia
Cassiopeia Dwarf
Cassiopeiae A
cassiterite
cast iron
casting
Castalia
casting out nines
Castor (Alpha Geminorum)
Castor and Pollux (French satellites)
Castor Moving Group
castor oil
cat (domestic) anatomy
catabolism
cataclysmic binary
cataclysmic variable
catadioptric telescope
Catalan number
Catalan solid
Catalan's conjecture
Catalan's constant
catalase
catalysis
catalyst
catalytic converter
cataract (geography)
cataract (medicine)
catastrophe theory
catastrophic hypothesis
Catch-22
catechol
catecholamines
category
category theory
catenary
catenoid
caterpillar
catharsis
catheter
catheter ablation
cathetus
cathode
cathode ray tube
cathode rays
catkin
cat's eye
Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC 6543)
Cat's Paw Nebula (NGC 6334)
CATSat (Cooperative Astrophysics and Technology Satellite)
Cauchy, Augustin Louis, Baron (1789–1857)
cauda equina
causal structure
causality
caustic curve
cave
Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810)
Cavendish, Margaret (1623–1673)
Cavendish Laboratory
Caventou, Joseph Bienaimé (1795–1877)
cavernous sinus
cavernous sinus thrombosis
cavitation
cavity magnetron
Cayley, George (1773–1857)
Cayley, Arthur (1821–1895)
Cayley's mousetrap
Cayley's sextic
Caxton, William (1422–1491)
C-band
CCD (charge-coupled device)
cecum
ceiling
celestial coordinates
celestial equator
celestial mechanics
celestial pole
celestial sphere
celestine
Celestis, Inc.
celiac artery
celiac disease
cell
CELL BIOLOGY
cell cycle
cell division
cell membrane
cell membranes, origin
cell potential
cell wall
cellophane
cellular automaton
cellulase
celluloid
cellulose
Celsius (unit)
Celsius, Anders (1701–1744)
celt
Cenozoic era
Centaur (minor planet)
Centaur (rocket)
Centaurus
Centaurus A (NGC 5128)
Centaurus Cluster
Centaurus X-3
Center for Astronomical Adaptive Optics
center of gravity
center of mass
center-of-mass energy
centipede
central angle
central meridian
central nervous system
centrifugal force
centrifuge
centriole
centripetal force
centroid
centromere
centrosome
century
cephalic index
Cephalochordata
cephalopod intelligence
cephalopods
cephalothorax
Cepheid variable
Cepheus (constellation)
ceramics
cerci
cerebellum
cerebral aqueduct
cerebral palsy
cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrum
Cerenkov, Pavel Alekseevich (1904–1990)
Cerenkov radiation
Ceres
CERISE
cerium
cermets
CERN
Cernan, Eugene Andrew (1934–2017)
Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory
Cerulli, Vicenzo (1859–1927)
cerussite
cervical
cervical pleura
cervical vertebra
cervix
cesium
cetaceans
CETEX
CETI
CETI, opposition to
Cetus
Ceva, Giovanni (1647–1734)
CGS units
CH Cygni
CH star
Chadwick, James (1891–1974)
Chaetognatha
Chaffee, Roger Bruce (1935–1967)
Chagas' disease
Chain, Ernst Boris (1906–1979)
chain reaction
Chaitin's constant
chalcanthite
chalcedony
chalcocite
chalcopyrite
Chalet/Vortex
chalk
Challenger
Challenger disaster
Challenger expedition
Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847)
Chamberlain, Owen (1920–2006)
Chamberlin, Thomas Chrowder (1843–1928)
Chamberlin-Moulton planetesimal hypothesis
Chameleon (constellation)
CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload)
Champernowne's Number
Chandler wobble
Chandra X-ray Observatory
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910–1995)
Chandrasekhar Limit
Chang Zeng (Long March)
change of state
change ringing
chaos
CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS
chaotic attractor
chaotic control
chaotic inflationary theory
chaotic terrain
Chappe, Claude (1763–1805)
Chara (Beta Canum Venaticorum)
characteristic velocity
Charcot, Jean-Martin (1825–1893)
charge
charge conjugation
charge number
charge-coupled device
Charles' law
charm
Charon
chassignite
chelate
chelation
chelicerae
Chelomei, Vladimir Nikolaevich (1914–1984)
Chelonia
chemical analysis
chemical bond
CHEMICAL BONDING
chemical composition
chemical decomposition
chemical engineering
chemical equation
chemical equilibrium
chemical formula
chemical reaction
chemiluminescence
chemistry
CHEMISTRY
CHEMISTS
chemoautotrophs
chemoreceptor
chemotropism
CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite)
chert
chess
chest
chest CT scan
chest X-ray
chewing and biting
chiastolite
chickenpox
Chicxulub Crater
chill hardening
China Great Wall Industry Corporation
CHINA IN SPACE
Chinese astronomy
Chinese fire-arrows
Chinese remainder theorem
Chinese rings
Chinese Room
chinook
CHIPSat (Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer satellite)
chirality
Chiron
Chiroptera
chi-squared test
chitin
Chladni, Ernst Florens Friedrich (1756–1827)
chlamydia
chloral
chloride
chlorine
chlorite
chloroethene
chloroform
chloromycetin
chlorophyll
chloroplast
chloroquine
choke
cholecystokinin
cholera
cholesterol
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)
chondrite
chondromalacia
chondrosarcoma
chondrule
chord
chord (of an airfoil)
chordate
chorea
chorion
chorion gonadotrophin
chorionic villus sampling
choroid
choroid plexus
Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264)
chromatic aberration
chromatic number
chromatid
chromatin
chromatography
chromatophore
chromite
chromium
chromoplast
chromosome
chromosphere
chromospheric network
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
chronology-violating spacetime
chronometer
chronon
chrysalis
Chryse Planitia
Chrysler, Walter Percy (1875–1940)
chrysoberyl
chrysotile
chuffing
Church, Alonzo (1903–1995)
Church-Turing thesis
chyle
chyme
chymotrypsin
cicada
Cierva, Juan de la (1895–1936)
ciliary body
ciliary muscle
ciliate
cilium
cinder cone
CINDI (Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigations)
cingulum
cinnabar
cipher
circadian rhythm
Circinus
Circinus X-1
circle
circle involute
circle of Willis
circuit breaker
circular motion
circular number
circular orbit
circular prime
circular velocity
circulatory system
circumcenter
circumcircle
circumference
circumpolar star
circumscription
circumstellar maser
cirque
cirrhosis of the liver
cissoid
cisterna chyli
cis-trans isomerism
citric acid
citric acid cycle
citrus
civil engineering
civilizations, extraterrestrial
Clairaut, Alexis Claude (1713–1765)
cladistics
Clark, Alvan (1804–1887)
Clarke, Arthur C. (1917–2008)
Clarke Belt
class
CLASSICAL MECHANICS
classical theory
CLASSIFICATION IN BIOLOGY
classification in mathematics
clastic rock
clathrate
Claude, Albert (1899–1983)
Clauser, Francis H. (1913–2013)
Clausius, Rudolf Julius Emanuel (1822–1888)
clavicle
Clavius, Christoph (1538–1612)
Clavius (lunar crater)
clay
Cleator, P(hilip) E(llaby) (1908–1994)
cleavage (embryology)
cleavage (mineralogy)
cleft palate
clelia
Clement, Hal (1922–2003)
Clementine
clepsydra
Clerk, Dugald (1854–1932)
cliff
Clifford, William Kingdon (1845–1879)
climate
climax community
cloaking device
clock puzzles
clocks and watches
clone
cloning
close binary
Close Encounters of the Third Kind
closed (mathematics)
closed curve
closed time-like path
cloud chamber
clouds
CloudSat
clover
Cloverleaf Quasar
club mosses
clubfoot
Cluster (satellite mission)
cluster of stars
cluster of galaxies
CN star
CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales)
cnidarian
CNO star
coacervate
coal
coal gas
coal tar
Coalsack
coasting flight
Coathanger (Collinder 399)
coaxial cable
cobalt
Cobb, Geraldine ('Jerrie') (1931–)
COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer)
cobra
coca
cocaine
coccolith
Cocconi, Guiseppe (1914–2008)
coccus
coccyx
cochineal
cochlea
cochlear implant
cochleoid
Cockcroft, John Douglas (1897–1967)
Cockerell, Christopher Sydney (1910–1999)
cocoon
Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146)
cocoon star
cod, anatomy
Coddington's Nebula (IC 2574)
codeine
CODES AND CIPHERS
coding theory
codomain
codon
coefficient
coefficient of linear expansion
coelacanth
coelenteron
coelom
coelostat
coenocyte
coenzyme
coevolution
cofactor
coherence
cohesion
Cohn, Ferdinand Julius (1828–1898)
cohomology
coin paradox
coke
col
colchicine
Colchicum
Cold Bokkeveld meteorite
cold gas attitude control system
cold sore
Cold War, linked to UFO reports
Cole, Dandridge MacFarland (1921–1965)
Coleoptera
colic
colitis
collagen
Collatz problem
collenchyma
Collier's space program
collimator
Collins, Eileen Marie (1956–)
Collins, Michael (1930–)
collisions, with asteroids and comets
colloid
Colombo, Guiseppe 'Bepi' (1920–1984)
colon
colon and rectal cancer
colon and rectal cancer treatment
colonoscopy
color
color blindness
color charge
color excess
color force
color index
color temperature
colorimetry
color-magnitude diagram
colostrum
Columba
Columbia
Columbia Hills, Mars
Columbiad
columbite
Columbus Laboratory
Columbus Optical SETI Observatory
colure
coma, medical
coma, optical
Coma Berenices
Coma Cluster
Coma Star Cluster (Melotte 111)
Comas Sola, Jose
combe
combination
combinatorial analysis
combinatorics
combined magnitude
combustion
combustion chamber
comet
COMET AND ASTEROID MISSIONS
Comet Nucleus Tour
cometary collision hypothesis
cometary globule
COMETS
comets, collisions with
COMETS (Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite)
COMINT (communications intelligence)
command destruct
Command Module
commensal
Committee on Contamination by Extraterrestrial Exploration
Committee 14 on Exobiology
Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Committee on the Exploration of Extraterrestrial Space (CETEX)
common carotid artery
common cold
common fraction
common-envelope star
communication, with the Moon and planets
communications satellite
commutative
commutator
compact disk
comparator
compass
compasses
competition
coplanar
complement
complimentarity
complete blood count (CBC)
COMPLEX
complex adaptive system
complex analysis
complex number
COMPLEX NUMBERS
complex system
complexity
complexity theory
composite
composite number
composition, chemical
compound
compound eye
compressible
Compton, Arthur Holly (1892–1962)
Compton effect
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
computability theory
computable number
computed tomography (CT) scanning
computer
computer terminology
COMPUTERS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, AND CYBERNETICS
Comsat (Communications Satellite Corporation)
Comte, Auguste (1798–1857)
concave
concentration
conceptualism
conchoid
conchoid fracture
concretion
concussion
condensation
condensation reaction
Condon, Edward Uhler (1902–1974)
Condon Report
conductance
conduction, thermal
conductivity
conductor, electrical
conductor, thermal
condyle
condyloid joint
cone
cone cell
Cone Nebula
Conestoga
conformational analysis
Confucius (c. 551–479 BC)
congenital
congenital heart defects
conglomerate
Congreve, William (1772–1828)
congruent
congruum problem
conic sections
conifer
conjugate
conjugation
conjunction (astronomy)
conjunctiva
conjunctivitis
connected
connective tissue
connective tissue disorders
Conquest of Space
Conrad, Charles 'Pete' Jr. (1930–1999)
conservation law
conservation of mass and energy
conservation of momentum
constant
constant composition, law of
constantan
CONSTELLATIONS
Constellation-X
constipation
constructible
constructive margin
contact (of an eclipse)
Contact (science fiction)
contact binary
contact ion thruster
contact lenses
contact metamorphism
contact process
containment
contamination
contig
continent
continental climate
continental drift
continental shelf
contingency
continued fraction
continuity
continuous spectrum
continuum
continuum hypothesis
contour
CONTOUR (Comet Nucleus Tour)
contraception
contractile root
contractile vacuole
contrail
contrast
contrast medium
control rod
convection
Convection and Rotation of Stars (COROT)
convective envelope
convective overshoot
convergence
convergent evolution
convergent point
convex
convulsion
Conway, John Horton (1937–)
Conway's chained-arrow notation
Cooke, William Fothergill (1806–1879)
Coolidge, William David (1873–1975)
Cooper, Leon Neil (1930–)
Cooper, Leroy Gordon Jr. (1927–2004)
co-orbital
coordinate
coordinate bond
coordination compound
coordination number
Copeland's Septet (Hickson 57)
copepod
Copernican Revolution
Copernican system
Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473–1543)
Copernicus (lunar crater)
coplanar copolymer
copper
coprime
Cor Caroli (Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum)
coral
Coralie
Cordelia
cordierite
cordillera
cordite
Córdoba Durchmusterung
core, planetary
Cori, Carl Ferdinand (1896–1984)
Coriolis (satellite)
Coriolis effect
cork
cork cambium
corm
cornea
corneal abrasion
corneal diseases and disorders
corneal transplant
Cornell University
corniculate cartilages
corolla
corona
Corona (spy satellites)
Corona Australis
Corona Borealis
coronagraph
coronal condensation
coronal hole
coronal lines
coronal loop
coronal mass ejection
coronal plane
coronal rain
coronal streamer
coronary angiography
coronary artery
coronary artery bypass grafting
coronary artery disease
coronary calcium scan
coronary microvascular disease
coronary vein
Coronas
COROT
co-rotation
Corporal (missile)
corpus callosum
corpus luteum
corrector plate
correlation
Correns, Carl Erich (1864–1933)
correspondence
Corsa-A
cortex
corticosteroid
corticotropin-releasing hormone
cortisol
cortisone
Cortright, Edgar M. (1923–2014)
corundum
Corvus
COS-B
COSETI
cosine
cosmic abundance
cosmic background radiation
cosmic catastrophes, biological effects
cosmic censorship
cosmic collisions, biological effects
cosmic distance ladder
cosmic dust
cosmic infrared background
cosmic microwave background
cosmic rays
Cosmic Search magazine
cosmic string
cosmic X-ray background
cosmic-ray exposure age
cosmological constant
cosmological model
cosmological principle
cosmological redshift
COSMOLOGY
cosmology
cosmonaut
COSMONAUTS AND ASTRONAUTS
cosmos
Cosmos launch vehicle
Cosmos spacecraft
COSPAR (Committee on Space Research)
costal cartilage
costocervical trunk
cotton
cotyledon
coudé focus
cough
Coulomb, Charles Augustin de (1736–1806)
coulomb
Coulomb barrier
Coulomb's law
Coulomb's law for magnets
countable set
countdown
counterfeit coin problem
couple
coupling constant
Courier
Cousteau, Jacques Yves (1910–1997)
covalent bond
covariance
covellite
cow, anatomy
cowling
Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald (1907–2003)
Coyne, George (1933–)
CP violation
CPT theorem
crab
Crab Nebula
cracking
cramp
crane
cranial nerve
cranium
crater
Crater (constellation)
crater chain
crater lake
CRATERS
crawler-transporter
creatine
creep (geology)
creep (metallurgy)
cremaster
creosote
Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888)
cresol
Cressida
Cretaceous period
Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary
cretinism
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
crevasse
Crick, Francis Harry Compton (1916–2004)
cricoid cartilage
cricoarytenoid joints
cricothyroid joint
cricothyroid ligament
cricovocal membrane
Crimean Astrophysical Observatory
crinoid
Crippen, Robert Laurel (1937–)
critical angle
critical density
critical mass
critical point
critical temperature
Crocodilia
Crocco, Gaetano Arturo (1877–1968)
Cro-Magnon Man
Cromie, Robert (1856–1907)
Crompton, Samuel (1753–1827)
Cronstedt, Axel Frederik (1722–1765)
Crookes, William (1832–1919)
Cros, Charles (1846-1888)
cross
crossbedding
cross-cutting
Crossfield, Albert Scott (1921–2006)
crossing over
cross-linking
Crossopterygii
cross-section
crown glass
CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite)
cruciate ligaments
crucible
cruise phase
Cruithne
crunode
crust
crustacean
Crux
cryobiology
cryobot
cryogenics
cryolite
cryovolcanism
cryptarithm
cryptobiosis
cryptography
cryptovolcano
cryptozoology
crystal
crystal skulls
crystallization
crystallography
CS- (Communications Satellite)
Császár polyhedron
CT scanning
CTA102
Ctenophora (comb jellies)
CTIO
C-type asteroid
cube
cubewano
cubic curve
cubic equation
cubit
cubital fossa
cuboctahedron
Cullen number
culmination
culture
cuneiform cartilages
Cunningham, R. Walter (1932–)
Cunningham chain
cup
cuprite
cupronickel
curare
Curie, Marie (1867–1934)
curie (unit)
Curie temperature
Curiosity descent
Curiosity mission diary
Curiosity Rover
curium
curl
current, electric
current lag and lead
Curtis, Heber Doust (1872–1942)
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond (1878–1930)
curvature
curvature constant
curvature of field
curvature of the spine
curvature tensor
curve
curve of constant width
Cushing, Harvey Williams (1869–1939)
Cushing's syndrome
cusp
cute number
cuticle
cutoff
cuttlefish
Cuvier, Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert (1769–1832)
CW Leonis
cyanamide process
cyanide
cyanobacteria
cyanogen
cyanogen bands
cyanosis
Cybele group
cybernetics
cyborg
cycad
cyclamates
cyclic compound
cyclic number
cyclic polygon
cyclohexane
cycloid
cyclone
Cyclops, Project
cyclotron
cyclotron radiation
16 Cygni
61 Cygni
Cygnus
Cygnus A
Cygnus Loop
Cygnus X-1
cylinder
cylindrical coordinates
Cyrano de Bergerac (1619–1655)
cysteine
cystic fibrosis
cystitis
Cytherean
cytochromes
cytogenetic map
cytokine
cytokinesis
cytology
cytoplasm
cytoplasm streaming
cytoscopy
cytosine
cytoskeleton
cytosol
CZ (Long March)