A

David

Darling

Encyclopedia of Science: B entries

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

Baade, (Wilhelm Heinrich) Walter (1893–1960)
Baade's Window
Baade-Wesselink method
Babbage, Charles (1791–1871)
Babbitt metal
Babcock, Harold Delos (1882–1968) and Horace Welcome (1912–2003)
Babylonian astronomy
babyverse
Bachet de Méziriac, Claude-Gaspar (1581–1638)
bacillus
back
back-contamination
backgammon
background
background radiation
Bacon, Francis (1561–1626)
Bacon, Roger (c. 1214–c. 1292)
bacteremia
bacteria
bacterial artificial chromosome
bacterial disease
bacterial spores
bacteriology
bacteriophage
bacteriorhodopsin
badlands
Baekeland, Leo Hendrik (1863–1944)
Baeyer, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolph von (1835–1917)
Baikonur Cosmodrome
Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1858–1954)
Bailey, Solon Irving (1854–1931)
Bailey bridge
Bailly (lunar crater)
Bailly, Jean Sylvain (1736–1793)
Baily, Francis (1774–1844)
Baily's beads
Baird, John Logie (1888–1946)
Bakelite
Baker, Benjamin (1840–1907)
Baker, Thomas (1656–1740)
Baker (space monkey)
Bakhshali Manuscript
baking powder
balance
baleen
Ball, Robert Stawell (1840–1913)
Ball, W(alter) W(illiam) Rouse (1850–1925)
ball
ball lightning
ball-and-socket joint
ballistic coefficient
ballistic missile
ballistic panspermia
ballistics
BALLISTICS
balloon
ballute
Balmer series
Baluchitherium
Bamberga (asteroid)
Banach, Stefan (1892–1945)
Banach-Tarski paradox
banana
band
band gap
band spectrum
banded iron formation
bandpass
bandpass filter
bandwidth
Bang's theorem
banker's rounding
Banks, Joseph (1743–1820)
Banneker, Benjamin (1731–1806)
Bantam-X
Bappu, (Manali Kallat) Vainu (1927–1982)
bar (unit of pressure)
Bárány, Robert (1876–1936)
Barbaro, Daniele (1513–1570)
barbiturates
barchan
Bardeen, John (1908–1991)
barite
barium
barium star
bark
Barkla, Charles Glover (1877–1944)
Barlow, Peter (1776–1862)
Barlow lens
barn
barnacle
Barnard, Christiaan Neethling (1922–2001)
Barnard, Edward Emerson (1857–1923)
Barnard's Galaxy
Barnard's Loop
Barnard's Merope Nebula (IC 349)
Barnard's Star
Barnes, Ernest William (1874–1953)
Barnsley's fern
barometer
barophiles
baroreceptor
barred spiral
barrel
barrier island
barrier reef
Barringer, Daniel Moreau (1860–1929)
Barringer Crater
Barrow, Isaac (1630–1677)
Barsoom
Barthelemy, Jean Jacques (1716–1795)
Bartholin family
Bartholin's glands
Barton, Derek Harold Richard (1918–1998)
Bartsch, Jakob (1600–1633)
Barwell meteorite
barycenter
Barycentric Dynamical Time
baryogenesis
baryon
baryon degenerate matter
basal ganglia
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
basalt
base (chemical)
base (number)
base drag
base metal
base pair
base unit
basic oxygen process
basic salt
Basidiomycota
basilar artery
basking shark
basophil
Basov, Nikolai Gennadiyevich (1922–2001)
bat
Bates, Henry Walter (1825–1892)
Bateson, William (1861–1926)
batholith
bathyscaphe
battery
baud
Baudot, Jean-Maurice-Émile (1845–1903)
Bautz and Morgan classification
bauxite
Baxendell's Nebula (NGC 7088)
bay bar
Bayer, Johann (1572–1625)
Bayer constellations
Bayer designation
Bayes, Thomas (1702–1761)
Bayesian inference
Bayes' theorem
Bayliss, William Maddock (1860–1924)
bayou
BBXRT (Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope)
Be star
beach
Beachey, Lincoln (1887–1915)
beacon, interstellar
beacon, radio
beacon, satellite
Beacon Explorer
Beadle, George Wells (1903–1989)
Beagle 2
beak
Beal Aerospace Technologies
Beale ciphers
beamed-energy propulsion
beamwidth
Bean, Alan LaVern (1932–2018)
bearing
Beast Number
beat Cepheid
Beattie, James (1735–1803)
Beatty sequences
Beaufort wind scale
beauty and mathematics
Beck, Lewis White (1913–1997)
Becklin-Neugebauer Object
Beckmann thermometer
becquerel (unit)
Becquerel, Antoine Henri (1852–1908)
Becquerel, Paul (1879–1955)
bed
bee
Beebe, Charles William (1877–1962)
beech tree
Beer, Wilhelm (1797–1850)
beetle
Beggs, James Montgomery (1926–)
Behring, Emil Adolph von (1854–1917)
Békésy, Georg von (1899–1972)
bel (unit)
belemnite
Belinda
bell
Bell, Alexander Graham (1847–1922)
Bell, Charles (1774–1842)
Bell, Eric Temple (1883–1960)
Bell Burnell, (Susan) Jocelyn (1943–)
Bell number
Bell's palsy
Bellatrix (Gamma Orionis)
beluga whale
Belyayev, Pavel Ivanovich (1925–1970)
Benford's law
Benioff zone
benitoite
Bennett, Comet (C/1969 Y1)
Bentham, George (1800–1884)
benthos
Bentley, Richard (1662–1727)
bentonite
Benz, Karl (1844–1929)
benzaldehyde
benzene
benzoic acid
BepiColombo
BeppoSAX
bergschrund
beriberi
Berezovoi, Anatoly Nikolayevich (1942–2014)
Bergerac, Savinien Cyrano de (1619–1655)
Bergius, Friedrich (1884–1949)
Bergson, Henri (1859–1941)
berkelium
Berkeley, George (1685–1753)
Berkner, Lloyd Viel (1905–1967)
Bernal, J. D. (James Desmond) (1901–1971)
Bernal Sphere
Bernard, Claude (1813–1887)
Bernard system
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jacques Henri (1737–1814)
Bernoulli family
Bernoulli number
Bernoulli's law
berry
Berry's paradox
Berthelot, Pierre Eugène Marcellin (1827–1907)
Berthollet, Count Claude Louis (1748–1822)
Bertrand's box paradox
Bertrand's postulate
beryl
beryllium
Berzelius, Jöns Jackob (1779–1848)
Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784–1846)
Besselian elements
Bessemer process
Best, Charles Herbert (1899–1978)
Beta Cephei star
beta decay
"Beta Life"
Beta Lyrae
Beta Lyrae star
beta function
beta particle
BETA, Project
Beta Pictoris
beta-blocker
betatron
Betelgeuse
Betelgeuse: What will happen when it explodes?
Bethe, Hans Albrecht (1906–2005)
Betti number
Bevis, John (1695–1771)
BI-1 (Bereznyak-Isayev 1)
Bianca
bias drive
biceps
Bichat, Marie François Xavier (1771–1802)
Bickerton, Alexander William (1842–1929)
bicorn
bicuspid
bicuspid curve
bicycle
Bieberbach conjecture
Biela's Comet
biennial
bifurcation
Big Bang
Big Bear Solar Observatory
Big Bertha
Big Crunch
Big Dipper
Big Gemini
big LEO
Bigelow Aerospace
bilateral
bile
bile duct
bilharzia
biliary system
bilirubin
Billingham, John (1930–2013)
bimetallic strip
binary
binary asteroid
binary fission
binary operation
binary pulsar
binary star
binding energy
binocular vision
binoculars
binomial
binomial coefficient
binomial nomenclature
binomial theorem
BIOCHEMISTRY
biochemistry
biochips
biodiversity
biofeedback
biogenesis
bio-indicators
BIOLOGISTS
biological clock
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
biology
bioluminescence
biomarkers
biomass
biominerals
Bion
bionics
biophysics
biopsy
biorhythms
Biosatellite
Bioscience Advisory Committee
biospheres, recognition of
biosynthesis
Biot, Jean-Baptiste (1774–1862)
biotechnology
biotin
biotite
bipedalism
bipolar flow
bird
BIRD (Bi-spectral Infrared Detection satellite)
Biringuccio, Vannoccio (1480–1537)
Birkeland, Kristian Olaf Bernhard (1867–1917)
Birkhoff, George David (1884–1944)
birth
birth canal
birth defect
birthday paradox
birthday surprise
birthmarks
BIS
bisecting an angle
bishops problem
bismuth
bistromathics
bit
bitumen
bituminous sands
bivalve
BL Lacertae object
Blaauw, Adriaan (1914–2010)
Blaauw mechanism
Black, Joseph (1728–1799)
Black Arrow
Black Brant
Black Cloud, The
black dwarf
Black Eye Galaxy (M64, NGC 4826)
black hole
BLACK HOLES
Black Knight
black powder
black smoker
Black Widow Nebula
Black Widow Pulsar
blackbody
Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart (1897–1974)
blackjack
blackout
Blackwell, Elizabeth (1821–1910)
bladder (urinary)
bladder cancer
bladder cancer treatment
Blagg, Mary Adela (1858–1944)
Blagonravov, Anatoli A. (1895–1975)
Blanchard, Jean Pierre François (1783–1809)
Blanche's dissection
blast furnace
blastocoel
blastocyst
blastoid
blastomere
blastula
blazar
Blaze Star
Blazkho effect
bleach
bleaching
bleed-cycle operation
Blériot, Louis (1872–1936)
blindness
Blinking Nebula (NGC 6826)
Blish, James (1921–1975)
Blob, The
Bloch, Felix (1905–1983)
Bloch, Konrad Emil (1912–2000)
block universe
blockhouse
blood
blood, varieties of non-human
blood and marrow stem cell transplant
blood clotting
blood groups
blood pressure
blood sugar
blood tests
blood transfusion
blood vessel
blood-brain barrier
blowdown
blowhole
blowoff
blowpipe
Blue Book, Project
blue compact dwarf galaxy
blue giant
blue horizontal-branch star
Blue John
blue moon
Blue Planetary (NGC 3918)
Blue Scout Junior
blue shift
Blue Snowball Nebula (NGC 7662)
blue straggler
Blue Streak
blue supergiant
blue whale
bluff
Blum, Harold F. (1899–1980)
B-lymphocyte
boa
boat-tail
Bode, Johann Elert (1747–1826)
body temperature
body wave
Boeing
Bohm, David Joseph (1917–1992)
Bohr, Niels Henrik David (1885–1962)
Bohr atom
boil
boiling point
boiling-water reactor
boiloff
Bok, Bartholomeus ("Bart") Jan (1906–1983)
Bolingbroke, Henry St. John (1678–1751)
bolometer
bolometric magnitude
Bol'shoi Teleskop Azimultal'nyi
Boltwood, Bertram Borden (1870–1927)
Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844–1906)
Boltzmann constant
Boltzmann equation
Bólyai, János (1802–1860)
Bomarc
Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769–1821)
Bond, Alan (1944–)
Bond, William Cranch (1789–1859) and George Phillips (1825–1865)
bonderizing
Bondi, Hermann (1919–2005)
bone
bone cancer
bone demineralization in space
bone marrow
bone marrow tests
bone marrow transplantation
bone scan
Bonestell, Chesley (1888–1987)
Bonnet, Charles (1720–1793)
bony labyrinth
book lung
Boole (Stott), Alicia (1860–1940)
Boole, George (1815–1864)
Boolean algebra
Boomerang Nebula
Boost Glide Reentry Vehicle
booster
Boötes
bootstrap
borane
borate
borax
borazon
bore (tidal)
Borel, Emile (1871–1956)
Borel, Pierre (c. 1620–1671)
Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso (1608–1679)
Borg
Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986)
boric acid
Borman, Frank (1928–)
Born, Max (1882–1970)
bornite
boron
boron counter
boron-based life
Borrelly, Comet (19P/Borrelly)
Borromean Rings
Borsuk-Ulam theorem
Bosch, Karl (1874–1940)
Boscovich, Roger Joseph (1711–1787)
Bose, Satyendra Nath (1894–1974)
Bose-Einstein statistics
boson
Bossart, Karel J. (1904–1975)
botany
BOTANY
Bothe, Walther Wilhelm Georg Franz (1891–1957)
bottlenose dolphin
botulism
Boulton, Matthew (1728–1809)
boundary condition
boundary layer
boundary value problem
Bourbaki, Nicholas
Bouvard, Alexis (1767–1843)
Bova, Ben (1932–)
bow shock
bowden cable
Bowen, Ira Sprague (1898–1973)
bowhead whale
Box, The (Hickson 61)
Boyce, Chris (1943–1999)
Boyle, Robert (1627–1691)
Boyle's law
Bp star
Bracewell, Ronald Newbold (1921–2007)
Bracewell probes
brachial plexus
brachinite
brachiopod
brachistochrone problem
Brackett series
bract
Bradbury, Ray(mond) Douglas (1920–2012)
Bradley, James (1693–1762)
Bragg, William Henry (1862–1942)
Bragg angle
Bragg's law
Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601)
Brahmagupta (c. AD 598–c. 665)
braid
Braille (9969)
brain
brain stem
brain tumor
brain tumor treatment
brake
braking ellipses
braking rocket
Bramah, Joseph (1749–1814)
branching
branching ratio
Brand, Vance (1931–)
Brandon eyepiece
Brandt, Georg (1694–1768)
brane
brass
Brattain, Walter Houser (1902–1987)
Braun, Karl Ferdinand (1850–1918)
Bravais lattice
brazing
breakoff phenomenon
Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program
breast cancer
breast cancer treatment
breccia
breeding
bremsstrahlung
Brewster, David (1781–1868)
Brewster's law
Brianchon's theorem
bridge
Bridges, Calvin Blackman (1889–1938)
Bridges of Königsberg
Bridgman, Percy Williams (1882–1961)
Briggs, Henry (1561–1630)
Bright, Charles Tilston (1832–1888)
Bright, Richard (1789–1858)
brightness
brightness temperature
Bright's disease
Brindley, James (1716–1772)
brine
BRITAIN IN SPACE
British Interplanetary Society
Britannia metal
broadband communications
broadband photometry
Brochard problem
Brocken specter
bromine
bronchial tree
bronchiectasis
bronchiole
bronchitis
bronchopulmonary dysplasia
bronchoscopy
bronchus
Bronowski, Jacob (1908–1974)
bronze
Brookings Study
Brouwer, Luitzen Egbertus Jan (1881–1966)
Brouwer fixed-point theorem
Brown, Harrison (Scott) (1917–1986)
Brown, Robert (1773–1858)
brown algae
brown dwarf
brown dwarf, life on
Brownian motion
brucite
bruise
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom (1806–1859)
Bruno, Giordano (1548–1600)
bryophyte
bryozoan
BS- (Broadcasting Satellite)
B-type asteroid
bubble chamber
bubble life
Bubble Nebula (NGC 7635)
bubbles
buccal
buccinator
Büchner, Eduard (1860–1917)
Buchner, Ludwig (1824–1899)
Buckley, Edmond C. (1904–1977)
buckyball
bud
budding
buffer (solution)
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de (1707–1788)
Buffon's needle
Bug Nebula (NGC 6302)
bulb
bulbil
bulk modulus
Bull, Gerald Vincent (1928–1990)
Bumper-WAC
bunion
Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm (1811–1899)
Bunsen burner
buoyancy
Burali-Forti paradox
Buran
Burbidge, (Eleanor) Margaret (1919–) and Geoffrey Ronald (1925–2010)
burette
Burgess Shale
Buridan, Jean (c.1295–1358)
Buridan's ass
burn time
Burnet, Frank Macfarlane (1899–1985)
burnout
Burnham, Sherburne Wesley (1838–1921)
Burnham's Nebula
burns and scalds
burr
burr puzzle
Burroughs, Edgar Rice (1875–1950)
bursa
bursitis and tendinitis
burst, solar
Burton, Charles E. (1846–1882)
Bush, Vannevar (1890–1974)
bushel
Bushnell, David (1742–1824)
Bussard, Robert W. (1928–2007)
Bussard ramjet
butane
Butcher-Oemler effect
Butenandt, Adolf Friedrich Johann (1903–1995)
butte
butter
butterfles and moths
Butterfly Cluster (M6, NGC 6405)
butterfly diagram
butterfly effect
Butterfly Nebula (M 2-9)
Buys Ballot's law
Bw star
BX 442
BY Draconis star
Byron, (Augusta) Ada (1815–1852)
byte
Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory
Byurakan SETI conferences (1964 and 1971)