In the mediastinum, at
the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra,
the trachea divides into the right and left
primary bronchi. The bronchi branch into
smaller and smaller passageways until they terminate in tiny air sacs called
The cartilage and mucous
membrane of the primary bronchi are similar to that in the trachea.
As the branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline
cartilage in the walls decreases until it is absent in the smallest
bronchioles. As the cartilage decreases,
the amount of smooth muscle increases.
The mucous membrane also undergoes a transition from ciliated pseudostratified
columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal
epithelium to simple squamous epithelium.
The alveolar ducts and alveoli consist primarily of simple squamous epithelium,
which permits rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Exchange of
gases between the air in the lungs and the
blood in the capillaries
occurs across the walls of the alveolar ducts and alveoli.
|Cells of different kinds comprise the lining of various
parts of the lung. Both in the trachea and in the bronchi (a)
the lining consists of a deep array. Short basal cells (color) are
most prominent at the bottom. Rising between them are (left to right)
a brush cell, which lacks surface cilia, a goblet cell, which secretes
mucus, and a ciliated cell, columnar in form. More of these same cells
continue the sequence. The lining of the smaller bronchi and the bronchioles
(b) consist of only a single layer of cells; they are ciliated
and remain columnar in form. At the boundary between bronchiole and
alveolar duct (c) ciliated cells, columnar in form elsewhere,
are shortened and more cube-shaped. Among them appear Clara cells
(color) with an unknown function. Lining the individual alveolus (d)
are scavenger cells (color), the attenuated surface cells known Type
I and the more prominent cells of Type II. Organelles (light color)
found within Type II cells may be sites where surface-active lipids
the cells secrets are stored.
Source: National Cancer