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flexible cytoscopy equipment
Flexible cytoscopy equipment
Cytoscopy is a procedure to see the inside of the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy is performed with a cystoscope – a type of endoscope. There are two types of cystoscopes:
  • Standard, rigid cystoscope
  • Flexible cystoscope
The way the cystoscope is inserted varies, but the test is the same. Which cystoscope is used depends on the purpose of the exam.

If the standard rigid cystoscope is used, the patient lies on his and her back with knees up and apart. If a flexible cystoscope is used, this position is not necessary.

The procedure usually takes 5–20 minutes. The urethra is cleansed, a local anesthetic is applied, and the scope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Water or salt water (saline) is injected through the cystoscope to fill the bladder. As this occurs, the patient is asked to describe the feeling. The answer reveals information about the condition.

As fluid fills the bladder, it stretches the bladder wall. This lets your health care provider see the entire bladder wall. The patient will feel the need to urinate when the bladder is full. However, it must remain full until the examination is complete.

If any tissue appears abnormal, a small sample can be taken (biopsy) through the cystoscope and sent to a lab for analysis.

Why cytoscopy is performed

  • Check for cancer of the bladder or urethra (see bladder cancer)
  • Diagnose and evaluate urinary tract disorders
  • Diagnose recurrent bladder infections
  • Help determine the cause of pain during urination

Results of cytoscopy

If the results are normal the bladder wall will appear smooth, and the bladder will of normal size, shape, and position. There should be no obstructions, growths, or stones.

Abnormal results may indicate:
  • Bladder stones (calculi)
  • Bladder wall decompression
  • Chronic urethritis
  • Congenital (present at birth) abnormality
  • Cysts
  • Diverticula
  • Irritable bladder
  • Polyps
  • Prostate abnormalities:
    • Bleeding prostate
    • Enlarged prostate
    • Obstructed prostate
  • Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra
  • Tumors
  • Ulcer
  • Urethral strictures


Patients must be sure to drink 4 to 6 glasses of water per day after cystoscopy. A small amount of blood may be noticed in the urine following this procedure. If the bleeding continues after urination 3 times, the health care provider should be contacted.

The health care provider should also be contacted if any of these signs of infection:
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Reduced urine output

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