Nicolle, Charles Jules Henri (1866–1936)
Charles Nicolle was a French bacteriologist who was awarded the 1928 Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine for his discovery (1909) that typhus is transmitted
by the body louse. He later distinguished between classical typhus and murine
typhus, which is passed on to humans by the rat flea. Nicolle was head of
the Pasteur Institute in Tunis (1902–32), which under his direction
became a distinguished center for bacteriological research.