Paré, Ambroise (c. 1510–1590)

Ambroise Paré was a French surgeon whose many achievements (e.g., adopting ligatures or liniments in place of cauterization; introducing the use of artificial limbs and organs) have earned him regard as the father of modern surgery. In 1537 Pare was employed as an army surgeon and in 1552 became surgeon to Henry II, one of four French kings he served during his lifetime. As an army surgeon, he introduced new methods of treating wounds, described in his book The Method of Treating Wounds Made by Harquebuses and Other Guns (1545), and revived the practice of tying arteries during surgery instead of cauterizing them.