van der Waals, Johannes Diderick (1837–1923)
Johannes van der Waals was a Dutch physicist who investigated the properties of real gases. Noting that the kinetic theory of gases assumed that the molecules had neither size nor interactive forces between them, in 1873 he proposed the van der Waals' equation of state. The weak attractive forces between molecules are therefore called van der Waals forces. He received the 1910 Nobel Prize in Physics.