Whitworth, Joseph (1803–1887)
British engineer, metallurgist, philanthropist who brought radically improved
accuracy to the manufacture of machine
tools and who invented the Whitworth rifle, used by the British Army
in the late 1860s and 1870s, which had a hexagonal barrel. After studying engineering in Manchester he went to London, where he invented a technique for making perfectly flat metal surfaces. He returned to Manchester, where he produced extremely accurate machine tools. A system of threads for nuts and bolts is named after him.