Ernst and Karl von Siemens were German brothers associated with the electrical engineering industry. In 1849 Ernst Werner von Siemens (1816–92) developed an early telegraph system. With his brother Karl (1829–1906), he set up subsidiaries of the family firm in London, Vienna, and Paris. Friedrich (1826–1904) and Karl Wilhelm (later Sir William) (1823–83) developed a regenerative furnace that led to the open-hearth process used in the steel industry. In 1843 Karl Wilhelm introduced to Britain an electroplating process he and Werner had developed.