Herschel, John Frederick William (1792–1871)
English astronomer, only son of F. William Herschel,
who continued his father's observations of nebulae and double stars, and,
in 1834, began a survey of the southern sky from the Cape of Good Hope.
This survey,the first systematic observation of the sky in the southern
hemisphere, yielded 2,307 nebulae and 2,102 double stars which he listed,
together with his father's discoveries, in the General Catalogue of Nebulae
and Clusters – the forerunner of the New
General Catalogue. It was during John Herschel's time at the Cape
that the great "Moon Hoax" was perpetrated.
He was the first to notice the variability of Betelgeuse
(1836), the first to measure the solar
constant, and a pioneer of stellar photometry.