Intelsat is an organization (International Telecommunications Satellite Organization) formed in 1964 that designs, builds, and operates a global system of communications satellites of the same name. For most of its life, Intelsat was run by a consortium of government telecommunications authorities with shares in the organization in proportion to their use of it. However, in 2000, the nearly 150 member nations agreed to turn the enterprise from a treaty-based organization into a privately held company. The following year, Bermuda-based Intelsat Ltd was formed.
Intelsat 1, also known as Early Bird, was launched in April 1965 and became the first comsat to provide regular commercial telecommunications. It could support either one TV channel or 240 voice circuits but not both, a limitation that made it costly to use. In the spring of 1967, Early Bird was joined by two larger companions – Intelsat 2 over the Pacific and Intelsat 3 over the Atlantic. With these three satellites, all the world's TV networks could be linked together, and the first global telecast was broadcast on June 27, 1967.
During the 1960s and '70s, message capacity and transmission power of the Intelsat 2, 3, and 4 generations were progressively increased by segmenting the voice circuits into more and more transponder (transmitter-receiver) units, each having a certain bandwidth. The first of the Intelsat 4 series, launched in 1971, provided 4,000 voice circuits. With the Intelsat 5 series (1980), the introduction of multiple beams directed at the Earth resulted in even greater capacity. A satellite's power could now be concentrated on small regions of the planet, making possible lower-cost ground stations with smaller antennas. An Intelsat 5 satellite could typically carry 12,000 voice circuits. The Intelsat 6 satellites, which entered service in 1989, can carry 24,000 circuits and feature dynamic onboard switching of telephone capacity among six beams, using a technique called SS/ TDMA (satellite switched/time-division multiple access). Intelsat 7 satellites provide up to 112,500 voice circuits and three TV circuits each, depending on the market needs in the orbital location. Satellites in the most recently completed series, Intelsat 8 and 8A, launched in the late 1990s, can simultaneously handle 112,500 phone calls, or 22,000 phone calls plus three color TV broadcasts. These are now being joined by a 10-strong fleet of the even more powerful Intelsat 9, each carrying 72 C-band and 22-Ku-band transponders (see frequency bands). When the new fleet is in place by 2003-04, Intelsat expects to have a constellation of 24 operational satellites, supplemented by over 600 Earth stations.
Related category SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES
Home • About • Copyright © The Worlds of David Darling • Encyclopedia of Alternative Energy • Contact