Nobel, Alfred Bernhard (1833–1896)
Early lifeNobel was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833. His father, Immanuel, came from a poor peasant background and worked his way to fame as a military engineer. In 1842 he took his family to Russia where he began making land and sea mines which he supplied to the Russian government.
Like his two older brothers Robert and Ludwig, Alfred was schooled at home by private tutors. As a young man he spent about one year in the United States to study under Swiss engineer John Ericsson. Returning to Europe, he soon made a name for himself as an inventor. Besides, he had a share in the oil business of his brothers who had opened up the Baku oil fields in South Russia.
Together with his father, who had also returned to Sweden, Alfred Nobel now began experimenting with explosives. At Helenborg, near Stockholm, father and son opened a small workshop for their researches, and for producing nitroglycerine. For Alfred had discovered a useful method of exploding this substance, for which he had obtained a government patent. At their workshop one day, and accident occurred: a nitroglycerine explosion wrecked the plant, and Alfred's youngest brother and several other men were killed in the blast. A month later Immanuel Nobel suffered a stroke and remained an invalid for the rest of his life.
Invention of dynamiteThis left Alfred Nobel to carry on alone. He now began to set up new factories in Norway and Germany. But nitroglycerine remained very dangerous, especially when handled without care. The mishap that killed one of the Nobel brothers was not the only one of its kind: Nobel's factory in Germany blew up; so did a ship off Panama; and other blasts occurred in San Francisco, New York, and Australia. In the end, Belgium and France no longer allowed nitroglycerine to be made on their territories, while Sweden would not let it be transported, and Britain severely restricted its use.
At last, in 1866 and 1867, Nobel solved the problem. Nitroglycerine is a highly unstable liquid. By adding absorbent materials he was able to store it and transport it safely. To explode it now required a special detonator. This new form of nitroglycerine explosive was called 'dynamite' (from the Greek dynamis, meaning force), and became popularly known as 'Nobel's safety powder'.
From then on, Alfred Nobel's factories grew rapidly. In 1871 he built a plant in Ardeer, Scotland, which later became one of the world's largest dynamite factories. By 1875 he had factories in almost every country in Europe, and two in the United States. In 1887 he invented ballistite, the smokeless nitroglycerine powder that most countries began to use as gunpowder. Altogether, Nobel took out more than 100 patents on his inventions.
Fluent in several language besides his native Swedish, and immensely rich, Nobel became something of an international citizen, traveling abroad and looking after concerns in many lands. He remained single and was a lonely, rather pessimistic man. Fully aware of the deadly weapon which his inventions had put into the hands of military powers, he supported various organizations which were working for peace in Europe.
When Nobel died in 1896, he left £3¼ million in a fund, the interest from which was to provide five international prizes each year. These are awarded in Stockholm, on the anniversary on his death, to those who have made outstanding contributions in the fields of physics,chemistry, medical science, world literature, and friendship among nations. This last, the Peace Prize, expressed Nobel's hope that the world would not misuse his inventions.
Selection of prize-winnersThe Nobel prizes have since become one of the greatest honors that a scientist or writer may attain. They are awarded on recommendation from various learned bodies in Sweden, except for the peace prize, which depends on advice given by a committee of five people selected by the parliament of Norway. The prize itself consists of a gold medal and a certificate, together with a sum of (in 2012) $1.1 million. Sometimes the award is shared by several people, and if no one of sufficient merit is found, it is not made at all.
In the list of the award winners over the years are many of the great names of modern science and literature. The first Peace Prize, in 1901, went to Jean Henri Dunant, a citizen of Geneva, and founder of the Red Cross. Long gaps appear in the last list, because of the two world wars and for other reasons that made it hard to find a worthy champion of peace. The money accumulated in this way has been used to set up Nobel Institutes.
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