spatter and cinder cone
Long-lived basaltic lava fountains
that erupt spatter, scoria,
or cinder, and other tephra from a central
vent typically build steep-sided cones called spatter-and-cinder cones.
The greatest bulk of these cones consists of spatter, but during fountaining
a lava flow usually pours down one side
of the cone.
|Spatter cone. A small short-lived
lava fountain built this elongate cone of spatter around a vent located
on the flank of the much larger Pu'u O'o spatter and cinder cone.
This spatter cone is 4-5 m tall. Credit: T. N. Mattox / U.S. Geological
|Spatter and cinder cone. Lava fountain
from the main vent of Pu'u O'o adds new tephra to its towering spatter
and cinder cone. In 1986, the cone was about 255 m tall. The summit
was built higher than the main vent (about 86 m higher) as tephra
from dozens of tall fountains between 1983 and 1986 was blown by the
persistent trade winds toward the southeast. Credit: C. Heliker /
U.S. Geological Survey
Eruptions that build spatter and cinder
cones are much longer in duration and much more varied in intensity
than those that eject only spatter to build spatter cones and ramparts.
AND PLANETARY SCIENCE
Source: U.S. Geological