Tsikada was the second generation Soviet navigational satellite system; it arose from a collaboration between the Navy, Academy of Sciences, and Ministry of Shipping. The Tsikada system, which was accepted into military services in 1979, provides global navigation for both the Soviet Navy and commercial shipping. Each of the 20 Tsikada satellites, launched between 1976 and 1995, was placed in a roughly circular, 1,000-kilometer-high orbit with an inclination of 83° by a Cosmos 11K65M from Plesetsk.