GIRD (Gruppa Isutcheniya Reaktivnovo Dvisheniya)
Members of the Group for the Study of Reactive Motion. 1931. Left to right: standing I.P. Fortikov, Yu A Pobedonostsev, Zabotin; sitting: A. Levitsky, Nadezhda Sumarokova, Sergei Korolev, Boris Cheranovsky, Friedrich Tsander.
GIRD, Gruppa Isutcheniya Reaktivnovo Dvisheniya (Group for the Investigation of Reactive Motion), was a Moscow-based society, formed by Sergei Korolev and Fridrikh Tsander, which in 1933 launched the Soviet Union's first liquid-propellant rocket. In November 1933 it was incorporated into the Reactive Scientific Research Institute.