Garnet. Credit: Mineral Information Institute.
Lick Observatory is the first permanent mountain-top observatory, established in 1888 at an altitude of 1,283 m (4,169 ft) above sea-level on Mount Hamilton in California, with financial backing from James Lick of San Francisco. It houses a 91-cm (36-in) refractor, the second largest in the world after that at Yerkes Observatory. This instrument was used extensively at the turn of the century in the investigation of Mars. Other instruments include a 3-m (120-in) reflector and the 0.9-m (36-in) Crossley reflector. The observatory is run by the University of California at Santa Cruz.