Spinoza, Baruch (1632–1677)

Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch Jewish philosopher who rejected the dualism of Descartes in favor of a pantheistic God. This deity, Spinoza maintained, has mind and matter as two of its attributes and is the ultimate substance and explanation of the world. Spinoza is regarded, also with Descartes and Leibniz, as one of the great proponents of rationalism of his age.