## polyhedronA three-dimensional object whose faces are all polygons and whose edges are shared by exactly two polygons. "Polyhedron" comes from the Greek poly for "many" and -hedron meaning "base," "seat,"
or "face." Every polyhedron in three-dimensional space consists of (two-dimensional)
faces, (one-dimensional) edges, and (zero-dimensional) vertices. Sometimes
the term "polyhedron" is used to apply to figures in more than three dimensions;
however, analogs of polyhedra in the fourth
dimension or higher are also referred to as polytopes.
Polyhedrons, like polygons, may be convex or non-convex.
If a line that connects any two points on the surface of a polyhedron is
completely inside or on the polyhedron, the figure is convex. Otherwise,
it is non-convex or concave. A polygon is regular
if all of its faces are exactly the same size and shape and if the same
number of faces meet at each vertex. There are only five regular convex
polyhedra – the Platonic solids.
A further four regular polyhedra, the so-called Kepler-Poinsot
solids, exist that are non-convex. However, the term "regular polyhedra"
is sometimes used to describe only the Platonic solids. A convex polyhedron
is said to be semiregular if its faces have a similar arrangement
of nonintersecting regular plane convex polygons of two or more different
types about each vertex. These solids, of which there are 13 different kinds,
are commonly called the Archimedean
solids. A dual of a polyhedron is another polyhedron
in which faces and vertices occupy complementary locations. The duals of
the Archimedean solids are known as the Catalan
solids. A quasiregular polyhedron is the solid region
interior to two dual regular polyhedra; only two exist: the cuboctahedron
and the icoidodecahedron. There are also infinite families of prisms
and antiprisms. In total there are 92 convex polyhedra with regular polygonal
faces (and not necessary equivalent vertices); these are the Johnson
solids. The oldest known examples of manmade polyhedra were found on the islands of northeastern Scotland and date back to Neolithic times, between 2000 and 3000 BC. These stone figures are about two inches in diameter and many are carved into rounded forms of regular polyhedra. Examples including cubical, tetrahedral, octahedral, and dodecahedral forms, one which is the dual of the pentagonal prism, are on display in the Museum of Scotland and in Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. ## Reference- Cromwell, Peter R.
*Polyhedra*. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
## Related category• SOLIDS AND SURFACES | |||||

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