Glycosuria is the presence of excess sugar (glucose) in the urine. By far the commonest cause is diabetes, where as much as 200 g may be excreted daily. The glycosuria of diabetes is always accompanied by high blood sugar. In some people extreme emotional stress or fright may produce an excess of sugar in the urine. Another form of glycosuria occurs with injuries or tumors of certain parts of the brain. Still another form occurs in some individuals in whom, regardless of the sugar intake, a certain amount of sugar is passed into the urine. Here the kidneys are said to have a low threshold for sugar. The condition is called renal glycosuria and is without pathological significance. Glycosuria is also seen in normal pregnancy and in certain disorders of the thyroid gland and pituitary gland.
Diagnosis and treatment
Glycosuria may be found during a routine examination or if the doctor is performing specific tests because diabetes mellitus is suspected. Urine can be tested for glucose by using a chemically impregnated strip that changes color when it comes in contact with glucose. Treatment depends on the underlying cause.