Fleming, Alexander (1881–1955)
British bacteriologist who discovered lysozyme
(1922) and penicillin. Lysozyme is an
enzyme present in many body tissues and lethal
to certain bacteria; its discovery prepared the way for that of antibiotics.
Fleming's discovery of penicillin was largely accidental; and it was developed
as therapeutic later, by Howard Florey and
Ernst Chain. All three received the
1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work.