Aerospace can mean the physical region made up of Earth's atmosphere and the region immediately beyond it.

Aerospace is also the name given to the industry associated with air and space travel, including research and manufacturing toward these aims. In most countries, the aerospace industry involves a cooperation between public and private enterprises. A number of government-run space programs exist, including NASA in the United States, ESA in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, RKA in Russia, and China National Space Administration in China. In addition, many companies are involved in producing components for spacecraft and satellites, constructing aircraft, and air transport. Most recently, the aerospace industry has taken its first steps in space tourism.