transition element

Transition elements

A transition element is a metallic element that has an incomplete inner shell. Transition elements occupy the short groups in the periodic table – i.e., groups IB through VIIB and group VIII – in which the d-orbitals are being filled. In general the transition elements are dense, hard, and of high melting point. Their electronic structures, with many loosely-bound unpaired d electrons, account for their properties: they exhibit many different valence states, form stable ligand complexes, are mostly colored and paramagnetic, and are generally good catalysts. They form many stable organometallic compounds and carbonyls (compounds in which carbon monoxide, CO, acts as a ligand) with specially stable "push-pull" bonding. The second and third row transition elements are less reactive than the first row, and stable in higher valence states. Many transition elements are technologically important.


Table of transition elements
element name symbol atomic no.
Scandium Sc 21
Titanium Ti 22
Vanadium V 23
Chromium Cr 24
Manganese Mn 25
Iron Fe 26
Cobalt Co 27
Nickel Ni 28
Copper Cu 29
Zinc Zn 30
Yttrium Y 39
Zirconium Zr 40
Niobium Nb 41
Molybdenum Mo 42
Technetium Tc 43
Ruthenium Ru 44
Rhodium Rh 45
Palladium Pd 46
Silver Ag 47
Cadmium Cd 48
Tantalum Ta 73
Tungsten W 74
Rhenium Re 75
Osmium Os 76
Iridium Ir 77
Platinum Pt 78
Gold Au 79
Mercury Hg 80
Rutherfordium Rf 104
Dubnium Db 105
Seaborgium Sg 106
Bohrium Bh 107
Hassium Hs 108
Meitnerium Mt 109
Uununnilium Uun 110
Unununium Uuu 111
Ununbium Uub 112